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Section 8 of the Representation of People Act, [hereinafter referred to as the "Act of "], states as follows:. Disqualification on conviction for certain offences. A reading of Section 8 would show that, apart from certain grievous offences and convictions thereunder, it is only upon conviction of a minimum period of two years for other offences that a candidate gets disqualified from standing for election.

This Court has time and again referred to the long periods in which persons are undertrials, and the unsatisfactory result of undertrials taking advantage of the law and standing for election after election simply because their cases have not been decided in a timely manner. Given the fact that false cases can be filed, the Law Commission of India recommended that if charges are framed for offences in which punishment is for a period of two years or more, a law should be made amending Section 8 so that this can be incorporated therein, thereby reducing at one fell stroke the huge criminalisation that is found in politics in this country.

Apart from this, this Court has held that the least that can be done, given the present state of the law, is that at least information as to acquittals, discharge or conviction in relation to criminal offences in the past be set out by way of affidavit so that a voter has the right to know full particulars of the candidate for whom he is going to vote, including whether the candidate has committed criminal offences in the past.

To this effect, this Court in Union of India v. Association for Democratic Reforms and Another3, directed as follows:. In our opinion, the decision of even an illiterate voter, if properly educated and informed about the contesting candidate, would be based on his own relevant criteria of selecting a candidate. In democracy, periodical elections are conducted for having efficient governance for the country and for the benefit of citizens - voters.

In a democratic form of government, voters are of utmost importance. They have right to elect or re-elect on the basis of the antecedents and past performance of the candidate. The voter has the choice of deciding whether holding of educational qualification or holding of property is relevant for electing or re-electing a person to be his representative.

Voter has to decide whether he should cast vote in favour of a candidate who is involved in a criminal case. For maintaining purity of elections and a healthy democracy, voters are required to be educated and well informed about the contesting candidates. Such information would include assets held by the candidate, his qualification including educational qualification and antecedents of his life including whether he was involved in a criminal case and if the case is decided - its result, if pending - whether charge is framed or cognizance is taken by the court.

There is no necessity of suppressing the relevant facts from the voters. To sum up the legal and constitutional position which emerges from the aforesaid discussion, it can be stated that: 1. The jurisdiction of the Election Commission is wide enough to include all powers necessary for smooth conduct of elections and the word "elections" is used in a wide sense to include the entire process of election which consists of several stages and embraces many steps.

To maintain the purity of elections and in particular to bring transparency in the process of election, the Commission can ask the candidates about the expenditure incurred by the political parties and this transparency in the process of election would include transparency of a candidate who seeks election or re-election.

In a democracy, the electoral process has a strategic role. The little man of this country would have basic elementary right to know full particulars of a candidate who is to represent him in Parliament where laws to bind his liberty and property may be enacted. The right to get information in democracy is recognised all throughout and it is a natural right flowing from the concept of democracy. At this stage, we would refer to Article 19 1 and 2 of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, which is as under:.

Under our Constitution, Article 19 1 a provides for freedom of speech and expression. Voter's speech or expression in case of election would include casting of votes, that is to say, voter speaks out or expresses by casting vote. For this purpose, information about the candidate to be selected is a must.

Voter's little man - citizen's right to know antecedents including criminal past of his candidate contesting election for MP or MLA is much more fundamental and basic for survival of democracy. The little man may think over before making his choice of electing law-breakers as law-makers.

If so, the details thereof. As an aftermath of this judgement, Sections A and B were introduced into the Act of These sections provided:. Right to information. Candidate to furnish information only under the Act and the rules.

Union of India and Another4. Shah, J. What emerges from the above discussion can be summarised thus:. A The legislature can remove the basis of a decision rendered by a competent court thereby rendering that decision ineffective but the legislature has no power to ask the instrumentalities of the State to disobey or disregard the decisions given by the court. A declaration that an order made by a court of law is void is normally a part of the judicial function.

The legislature cannot declare that decision rendered by the Court is not binding or is of no effect. It is true that the legislature is entitled to change the law with retrospective effect which forms the basis of a judicial decision.

This exercise of power is subject to constitutional provision, therefore, it cannot enact a law which is violative of fundamental right. B Section B which provides that notwithstanding anything contained in the judgment of any court or directions issued by the Election Commission, no candidate shall be liable to disclose or furnish any such information in respect of his election which is not required to be disclosed or furnished under the Act or the rules made thereunder, is on the face of it beyond the legislative competence, as this Court has held that the voter has a fundamental right under Article 19 1 a to know the antecedents of a candidate for various reasons recorded in the earlier judgment as well as in this judgment.

The Amended Act does not wholly cover the directions issued by this Court. On the contrary, it provides that a candidate would not be bound to furnish certain information as directed by this Court. C The judgment rendered by this Court in Assn. D The contention that as there is no specific fundamental right conferred on a voter by any statutory provision to know the antecedents of a candidate, the directions given by this Court are against the statutory provisions is, on the face of it, without any substance.

In an election petition challenging the validity of an election of a particular candidate, the statutory provisions would govern respective rights of the parties. However, voters' fundamental right to know the antecedents of a candidate is independent of statutory rights under the election law. A voter is first citizen of this country and apart from statutory rights, he is having fundamental rights conferred by the Constitution.

Members of a democratic society should be sufficiently informed so that they may cast their votes intelligently in favour of persons who are to govern them. Right to vote would be meaningless unless the citizens are well informed about the antecedents of a candidate. There can be little doubt that exposure to public gaze and scrutiny is one of the surest means to cleanse our democratic governing system and to have competent legislatures. E It is established that fundamental rights themselves have no fixed content, most of them are empty vessels into which each generation must pour its content in the light of its experience.

The attempt of the Court should be to expand the reach and ambit of the fundamental rights by process of judicial interpretation. During the last more than half a decade, it has been so done by this Court consistently. There cannot be any distinction between the fundamental rights mentioned in Chapter III of the Constitution and the declaration of such rights on the basis of the judgments rendered by this Court. Reddi, J. Finally, the summary of my conclusions:. This right to information is, however, qualitatively different from the right to get information about public affairs or the right to receive information through the press and electronic media, though, to a certain extent, there may be overlapping.

The casting of vote in favour of one or the other candidate marks the accomplishment of freedom of expression of the voter. In embarking on this exercise, the points of disclosure indicated by this Court, even if they be tentative or ad hoc in nature, should be given due weight and substantial departure therefrom cannot be countenanced.

However, there is no good reason for excluding the pending cases in which cognizance has been taken by the Court from the ambit of disclosure. Having accepted the need to insist on disclosure of assets and liabilities of the elected candidate together with those of the spouse or dependent children, Parliament ought to have made a provision for furnishing this information at the time of filing the nomination.

Failure to do so has resulted in the violation of guarantee under Article 19 1 a. The Election Commission's orders related to disclosure of assets and liabilities will still hold good and continue to be operative. However, Direction 4 of para 14 insofar as verification of assets and liabilities by means of summary enquiry and rejection of nomination paper on the ground of furnishing wrong information or suppressing material information should not be enforced.

Dharmadhikari, J. Section B, therefore, stood struck down. In , an important amendment was made to the Conduct of Election Rules, , and Form 26 was also amended. This Court in Satish Ukey v. Devendra Gangadharrao Fadnavis and Another5, referred to the aforesaid amendment as follows:. A cumulative reading of Section A of the Act and Rule 4-A of the Rules and Form 26 along with the letters dated , and , in our considered view, make it amply clear that the information to be furnished under Section A of the Act includes not only information mentioned in clauses i and ii of Section A 1 , but also information, that the candidate is required to furnish, under the Act or the Rules made thereunder and such information should be furnished in Form 26, which includes information concerning cases in which a competent court has taken cognizance [Entry 5 ii of Form 26].

This is apart from and in addition to cases in which charges have been framed for an offence punishable with imprisonment for two years or more or cases in which conviction has been recorded and sentence of imprisonment for a period of one year or more has been imposed [Entries 5 i and 6 of Form 26 respectively]. In Public Interest Foundation supra , a Five-Judge Bench of this Court, after setting out Section 8 of the Representation of People Act, and copiously referring to the th Law Commission Report titled "Electoral Disqualifications" of February , issued directions contained in paragraph , as referred to in our Order dated The Court ended with a sense of anguish followed by hope as follows:.

These directions ought to be implemented in true spirit and right earnestness in a bid to strengthen the democratic set-up. There may be certain gaps or lacunae in a law or legislative enactment which can definitely be addressed by the legislature if it is backed by the proper intent, strong resolve and determined will of right-thinking minds to ameliorate the situation. It must also be borne in mind that the law cannot always be found fault with for the lack of its stringent implementation by the authorities concerned.

Therefore, it is the solemn responsibility of all concerned to enforce the law as well as the directions laid down by this Court from time to time in order to infuse the culture of purity in politics and in democracy and foster and nurture an informed citizenry, for ultimately it is the citizenry which decides the fate and course of politics in a nation and thereby ensures that "we shall be governed no better than we deserve", and thus, complete information about the criminal antecedents of the candidates forms the bedrock of wise decision-making and informed choice by the citizenry.

Be it clearly stated that informed choice is the cornerstone to have a pure and strong democracy. We have issued the aforesaid directions with immense anguish, for the Election Commission cannot deny a candidate to contest on the symbol of a party. A time has come that Parliament must make law to ensure that persons facing serious criminal cases do not enter into the political stream. It is one thing to take cover under the presumption of innocence of the accused but it is equally imperative that persons who enter public life and participate in law making should be above any kind of serious criminal allegation.

It is true that false cases are foisted on prospective candidates, but the same can be addressed by Parliament through appropriate legislation. The nation eagerly waits for such legislation, for the society has a legitimate expectation to be governed by proper constitutional governance. The voters cry for systematic sustenance of constitutionalism.

The country feels agonised when money and muscle power become the supreme power. Substantial efforts have to be undertaken to cleanse the polluted stream of politics by prohibiting people with criminal antecedents so that they do not even conceive of the idea of entering into politics.

They should be kept at bay. We are sure, the law-making wing of the democracy of this country will take it upon itself to cure the malignancy. We say so as such a malignancy is not incurable. It only depends upon the time and stage when one starts treating it; the sooner the better, before it becomes fatal to democracy. Thus, we part.

The nation continues to wait, and is losing patience. Cleansing the polluted stream of politics is obviously not one of the immediate pressing concerns of the legislative branch of government. As a sequel to this judgment the directions contained in the order dated Shri K. Viswanathan, learned amicus curiae placed before us some of the facts stated hereinabove. In addition, he also referred to revised guidelines issued by the ECI on He then analysed the report of the ECI and submitted that given our contempt jurisdiction under Article read with Article of the Constitution of India we are not bound by the provisions of the Contempt of Courts Act, and can not only impose sentences, fines, but can also reprimand authorities and persons for acting contrary to our directions.

He picked up, at random, some examples which showed how all the political parties have been flouting our directions in letter and spirit, fielding persons whose criminal antecedents show that they have been charge-sheeted or charged with serious offences, with no real reason as to why such person has been preferred over other more deserving candidates.

This chart is appended to our judgment as Annexure-I hereto. In addition, he argued that Forms C-1, C-2, C-7 and C-8 were either not filled 2 out of 10 parties admittedly have not filled up Forms C-7 and C-8 or have been filled without disclosing particulars. He then copiously referred to the Symbols Order and argued that if we were to give teeth to our Order dated He has also made certain valuable suggestions which shall be reflected in the directions issued by this judgment.

To therefore argue, as has been argued by the learned petitioner and as suggested by Shri Viswanathan that the ECI is itself in contempt in not having promptly notified this Court of the non-following of its directions in the Order dated As a matter of fact, he argued that the contempt petition itself was filed 4 days before the result was declared, and it is therefore misleading to say that it was only after the contempt petition was filed that the ECI gave its report to the Court.

As can be seen, this report is dated He then urged that apart from directions that could be issued under clause A of the Symbols Order, electors, that is, those who are entitled to vote at an election are also given the right to approach the Court in an election petition under Section 81 read with Section of the Representation of the People Act, on the ground that the election of the returned candidate is materially affected by rejection of an application filed by such elector for being nominated by such political party as he was better suited to represent the particular political party in view of our Order dated He then urged that such election petition so filed could be considered on merits, as a violation of our Order would amount to undue influence which is a "corrupt practice" under Section 2 read with Section 1 b of the Representation of the People Act, He also urged that the Model Code of Conduct requires that the ECI shall ordinarily announce the date of an election not more than three weeks prior to the date on which notification is likely to be issued.

In the case of the Bihar Assembly Elections , the poll schedule was announced only 5 days prior to the notification for the first phase of election. He therefore exhorted this Court to direct the ECI to follow the Model Code of Conduct in this behalf so that a political party can announce its candidates two weeks prior to the notification, which is the first date of filing of nomination.

Simultaneously, details of candidates in terms of paragraph 4. He also pointed out a judgment of this Court in Pravasi Bhalai Sangathan v. Union of India and Others6 and paragraph 29 thereof, where a direction has been made that a reference be made to the Law Commission to study as to whether the ECI should be conferred the power to de-recognize a political party in cases in which hate speech is involved.

Shri Harish Salve, learned senior advocate also appeared for the ECI and submitted that there are no instructions on behalf of the ECI on directing the ECI to follow the Model Code of Conduct so that a political party can announce its candidates two weeks prior to the notification, which is the first date of filing of nomination, as has been submitted by Shri Vikas Singh.

He also added that any such direction may be contrary to Section 30 of the Representation of People Act, Given the fact that two learned senior advocates are arguing for the same party at cross purposes and given the fact that Shri Vikas Singh later argued that his submission was as an Officer of the Court and not on instructions, we are of the view that it is hazardous to follow the course of action advocated by Shri Vikas Singh.

He further submitted that in order to ensure expeditious disposal of criminal trials, it would be imperative to increase the number of judges through an All Indian Judicial Services which is in line with the existing All India Civil Services.

Shri P. Surendranath, learned senior advocate appearing on behalf of Respondent No. He further submitted that the invocation of clause A of the Symbols Order must be limited to extreme situations of consistent and persistent failure, refusal or defiance to follow the lawful directions and instructions of the ECI and consequently must not be invoked for a single or isolated non-compliance of a direction without intention to refuse to comply with the direction. He also submitted that even in an extreme case of non-compliance, the approach of the ECI must be proportionate to the extent of such non-compliance.

He further submitted that the measures as suggested by the learned Amicus Curiae regarding a situation where only one candidate has applied for a particular seat may not be acceded to as the nomination of a candidate is the prerogative of the party and is based on various factors which are considered by the party before selection of the candidate.

This apart, he submitted that the measure suggested by the learned Amicus Curiae on directions to be given to the General Secretary of each party to submit a separate affidavit detailing compliance of the directions issued by the ECI may not be acceded to as this is in the domain of the legislature and that it will lead to a situation where the General Secretary of the party having submitted such an affidavit based on information given to them by the candidates may now be vulnerable to prosecution under Section A of the Representation of People Act, for no fault of their own.

He further argued that this Court must not read clause A of the Symbols Order to include a post-decisional hearing as it would prejudicially affect democracy based on a multi-party system. Shri Kapil Sibal, learned senior advocate appearing on behalf of Respondent No. He further submitted that clause A being an unfettered power vested with the ECI and such power having not been expressly conferred on the ECI by either the Constitution of India or the legislature, the clause needs to be held to be ultra vires and therefore is liable to be struck down.

Without prejudice to the argument on the vires of clause A, he submitted that given the ramifications of the withdrawal or suspension of recognition, the power must be exercised by the ECI proportionate to the extent of breach of its directions and must not be used in respect of every breach of a direction passed by it. He also submitted that this Court must not accede to the suggestion of the learned Amicus Curiae that the benefit of clause A of the Symbols Order must not be available to a party when the loss of recognition is pursuant to an action taken by the ECI under clause A of the Symbols Order, as such an interpretation is not contemplated in the language of either clause A or clause A.

We will first consider the directions in our Order dated Vide directions contained in paragraph 4. Further, through paragraph 4. The aforesaid directions have been given in furtherance of the directions already given by the Constitution Bench in Public Interest Foundation supra , so as to enable the voter to have an informed choice while exercising his right to vote.

By the said direction, what has been directed by us, is only to provide information to the voter so that his right to have information as to why a particular political party has chosen a candidate having criminal antecedents and as to why a political party has not chosen a candidate without criminal antecedents, is effectively guaranteed.

We are of the view that such a requirement would only enable the voter to have complete information and exercise his right to vote effectively. There are various factors which a political party takes into consideration while selecting a candidate.

As a citizen who possesses requisite qualifications and is not disqualified under any of the provisions of the Constitution or the Act of , has a right to contest an election and a voter has a right to vote a candidate of his choice, a political party would also have the discretion to choose a candidate of its choice. As has already been considered in various judgments, a possibility of a rival implicating someone falsely, as a political vendetta, is not unknown in the country.

Take a situation wherein otherwise a highly meritorious candidate has been falsely implicated in some criminal matters by his rivals. As against this, a person who has a clean record, but totally unknown to the electorate in that area, applies for a ticket of a political party. In such a situation, a political party can always give a reason that a candidate with criminal antecedents is found to be more suitable than a person who does not have criminal antecedents.

The reasons could be many. If the political party is of the prima facie opinion that such a candidate has been falsely implicated, it can say so. What has been provided by us in paragraph 4. As such, though a political party would have the freedom of selecting candidates of its choice, though having criminal antecedents, what would be required is to give reasons in support of such selection, and the reasons could be dependent on various factors including qualifications, achievements and other merits.

At the cost of repetition, such a direction is only to enable a voter to have all the necessary information, so that he can exercise his right to franchise in an effective manner. The directions in no way impinge upon the right of a political party to choose a candidate of its own choice.

The direction contained in paragraph 4. Arguments have been advanced before us with regard to the practicability of implementation of the direction contained in paragraph 4. To consider the said submissions, it will be relevant to refer to Section 30 of the said Act of Appointment of dates for nominations, etc. Perusal of Section 30 of the said Act of would require that the ECI shall, by notification in the Official Gazette, appoint the last date for making nominations, which shall be the seventh date after the date of publication of the first mentioned notification or, if that day is a public holiday, the next succeeding day which is not a public holiday.

Clause b of Section 30 of the said Act of would require that the date for the scrutiny of nominations shall be the day immediately following the last date for making nominations or, if that day is a public holiday, the next succeeding day which is not a public holiday. Clause c of Section 39 of the said Act of would require that the last date for the withdrawal of candidature shall be the second day after the date for the scrutiny of nominations or, if that day is a public holiday, the next succeeding day, which is not a public holiday.

A combined reading of clauses a to c of Section 30 of the said Act of would reveal that the last date for withdrawal of candidature would be around 10 days from the date of notification published by the ECI in the Official Gazette.

It is a ground reality that in most of the cases the candidates are finalised by the political parties between the period commencing from the date of notification till the last date of withdrawal. Direction No. There should be no difficulty insofar as requirement to publish the details within 48 hours from the selection of candidate is concerned. It could thus be seen that in the light of the statutory provision as it exists, it would not be possible to follow the direction to publish the details prior to two weeks before the first date of filing of nomination.

No doubt Shri Vikas Singh, learned Senior Counsel, who first addressed this Court as a counsel for the ECI and later on as an Officer of the Court, made a suggestion that the political parties could be directed to finalise their candidates before a substantial period and as such, such a direction could be complied with.

In our view, unless the competent legislature takes a call on the issue and makes suitable statutory provisions, it will not be permissible for this Court to lay down such a guideline. It has been strenuously submitted by Shri Viswanathan, the learned Amicus Curiae who has been supported by Shri Vikas Singh, that, this Court should issue a direction to the ECI to invoke powers under Clause A of the Symbols Order and take requisite action under the said clause to suspend, subject to terms and conditions, or withdraw recognition of such political party.

Such a request has been vehemently opposed by all the counsel appearing on behalf of the political parties. It has been submitted that the direction would empower the ECI to suspend or withdraw recognition of political party even for a small lapse on the part of a candidate or an office bearer of a political party in a District or a State. For appreciating the submissions made by the learned Amicus Curiae, it will be apposite to refer to some of the observations made by the Constitution Bench in Public Interest Foundation supra : "8.

In Lily Thomas v. Union of India [Lily Thomas v. Articles 1 e and 1 e of the Constitution, on the other hand, have conferred specific powers on Parliament to make law providing disqualifications for membership of either House of Parliament or Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State other than those specified in sub-clauses a , b , c and d of clause 1 of Articles and of the Constitution. We may note that no power is vested in the State Legislature to make law laying down disqualifications of membership of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State and power is vested in Parliament to make law laying down disqualifications also in respect of Members of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State.

For these reasons, we are of the considered opinion that the legislative power of Parliament to enact any law relating to disqualification for membership of either House of Parliament or Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State can be located only in Articles 1 e and 1 e of the Constitution and not in Article 1 read with Schedule VII List I Entry 97 and Article of the Constitution.

We have no hesitation in saying that the view expressed above in Lily Thomas [Lily Thomas v. It would thus be clear that the Constitution Bench has approved the view expressed by this Court in the case of Lily Thomas v. Union of India and Others7, that the legislative power of parliament to enact any law relating to disqualification for membership of either House of Parliament or Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State can be located only in Articles 1 e and 1 e of the Constitution and not in Article 1 read with Schedule VII List I Entry 97 and Article of the Constitution.

It will be relevant to further refer to paragraphs 24 and 25 of the judgment of the Constitution Bench in Public Interest Foundation supra , which read thus: " It is well settled in law that the court cannot legislate. Emphasis is laid on the issuance of guidelines and directions for rigorous implementation.

With immense anxiety, it is canvassed that when a perilous condition emerges, the treatment has to be aggressive. The petitioners have suggested another path. But, as far as adding a disqualification is concerned, the constitutional provision states the disqualification, confers the power on the legislature, which has, in turn, legislated in the imperative.

Thus, the prescription as regards disqualification is complete is in view of the language employed in Section 7 b read with Sections 8 to A of the Act. It is clear as noon day and there is no ambiguity. The legislature has very clearly enumerated the grounds for disqualification and the language of the said provision leaves no room for any new ground to be added or introduced.

It could thus be clearly seen that the Constitution Bench has, in unequivocal terms, held that the Court cannot legislate. It is further held that the prescription as regards disqualification is complete in view of the language employed in Section 7 b read with Sections 8 to A of the Act of The Constitution Bench goes on to say that it is clear as noon day and that there is no ambiguity.

It has further held that the legislature has very clearly enumerated the grounds for disqualification and the language of the said provision leaves no room for any new ground to be added or introduced. After considering the 18th report presented to the Rajya Sabha on 15th March, by the Department-related Parliamentary Standing Committee on Personnel, Public Grievances, Law and Justice on Electoral Reforms Disqualification of Persons from contesting Election on Framing of Charges against them for Certain Offences , the th Law Commission Report titled "Electoral Disqualifications" as well as various judgments of this Court, the Constitution Bench has reproduced the recommendations of the Law Commission in paragraph 59, which reads thus: " The eventual recommendations and proposed sections by the Law Commission read as follows:.

The filing of the police report under Section CrPC is not an appropriate stage to introduce electoral disqualifications owing to the lack of sufficient application of judicial mind at this stage. The stage of framing of charges is based on adequate levels of judicial scrutiny, and disqualification at the stage of charging, if accompanied by substantial attendant legal safeguards to prevent misuse, has significant potential in curbing the spread of criminalisation of politics.

The following safeguards must be incorporated into the disqualification for framing of charges owing to potential for misuse, concern of lack of remedy for the accused and the sanctity of criminal jurisprudence:. If trial not concluded within a one-year period then one of the following consequences ought to ensue:. Disqualification in the above manner must apply retroactively as well. Such disqualification must take place irrespective of when the charge was framed.

There is large-scale violation of the laws on candidate affidavits owing to lack of sufficient legal consequences. As a result, the following changes should be made to the RPA:. Since conviction under Section A is necessary for disqualification under Section 8 to be triggered, the Supreme Court may be pleased to order that in all trials under Section A, the relevant court conducts the trial on a day-to-day basis.

A gap of one week should be introduced between the last date for filing nomination papers and the date of scrutiny, to give adequate time for the filing of objections to nomination papers. After reproducing the aforesaid recommendations, the Constitution Bench has expressed its anguish as under: " The aforesaid recommendations for proposed amendment never saw the light of the day in the form of a law enacted by a competent legislature but it vividly exhibits the concern of the society about the progressing trend of criminalisation in politics that has the proclivity and the propensity to send shivers down the spine of a constitutional democracy.

The Constitution Bench further observed thus: " Jim, Seth E. Saunderson, Danie J. Saunderson, Mark Honeth, Danie J. Arnouts, R. Borges, V. Le Brun, O. Le Fevre, J. Penguen, G. Pernot, A. Schmitt, D. Journot, Nicolas Frouvelle, Cosmin I. Udroiu, Lucian F. Barbulescu, Oana M. Hart, E. Edwards, David J. Differding, Brian P. Lawler, Steven S. Wissler, Tejas P. Kulkarni, Miles Smith, Eric W.

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Even the top ETTV is a fairly new torrent site, which in a short amount of time, has been able to build a solid reputation for itself. Torrent Galaxy is, as its name suggests, one of the biggest torrent trackers on the web.

But it is no There are very few country-specific torrent trackers that have a huge free indie content library alon When it comes time to find a new go-to torrent tracker, there are many factors that must be taken int There many websites across the world that are known for their extensive torrent database but the only With the latest free indie content in high-definition, HDBits is among the few websites that can make Torrent websites are the easiest way to download or stream the latest free indie content.

There are n Torrent tracking websites are popular among tech-savvy internet users as they can be a one-stop solut Private torrent communities are growing around the world. Users in the torrent world love private torrent tracking sites. For them, being a part of a torrent t With so many torrent trackers all over the web, finding the perfect site for your torrenting needs is In due course of time, the website has turned itse Country specific torrent websites are often ignored by downloaders due to their low number of communi Large torrent websites have many wonderful features that make them the most sought after option for s Downloaders often have a no strings attached relationship with torrent websites which is purely about Private torrent tracking websites are one of the ideal ways to get free indie content.

There are larg The internet is filled with thousands of private torrent trackers each having a community of almost Mejor Torrent is a Spanish open torrent website for different types of free indie content. Private trackers that are restricted to a specific geographical location have a limited number of mem If you are looking up reviews of private torrent trackers, it means one of two things: 1.

Are you looking for a new, efficient, and powerful torrent search engine? If so, we With the sheer volume of torrent sites that are on the web nowadays, finding the right one can be a d The torrent landscape has changed drastically in the Spanish regions.

More and more free torrents and Whether you are looking for the best, highest-quality torrents of free indie TV shows, free indie mov In recent years, a large number of torrent users have been inclined towards being a part of a prestig There are average, normal torrent trackers … and then there are sites like Arena BG that go beyond wh Anyone who has experience using different torrent sites will tell you: not all torrent sites are crea When looking for a new torrent tracker, finding the right one for you is often not as easy as it may When it comes time to find a quick and high-quality torrent of your favorite free indie movie, free i Streaming services have brought down the torrent market cap enormously.

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It can be downright stressful to How do you know when you have found the perfect torrent index site? In most general torrent websites, anime usually makes up for a small part among all the torrent categ Bit Torrent AM is a public torrent tracker. It is open and free for anyone and everyone to use — so l If you are in the market for a new torrent tracker, you have definitely come to the right place.

With so many torrent sites out there nowadays to choose from, how on earth are you supposed to figure OMG Torrent may not be the first site that comes to mind when you think of the best torrent trackers If you are in the market for a new, effective torrent search engine, you have come to precisely the r When it comes to downloading all of your favorite free indie movies, free indie music, free indie TV With so many different torrent sites out there nowadays, it can be really difficult to find one that Named after a very popular brand of video codec, DivX Total is a public torrent tracker that allows u When it comes time to find a new torrent site for downloading free indie TV shows, there are a great Private tracker websites are only cool till you have access to them and they also come with their own Picking the perfect VPN for torrenting can be a daunting and confusing task.

There are so many differ How many times have you wanted to watch some show on Netflix and it w The internet is not always a fun and helpful place. No doubt, the internet is nothing short of a mira Imagine this scenario. Well, I suppose the answer to that que Online privacy and security are 2 increasingly rare commodities in our digital world. Whether we are What do you prioritize when you are looking for a new VPN for torrenting? Perhaps your number one con When you are looking for a good VPN for torrenting, what are some of the things that you are looking Ru Storka is, as the name suggests a torrent tracker from Russia.

It is a public torrent tracker, whi Torrent trackers are only getting better. Site designs are being improved, user experience is being v Programming software can be costly and downloading them from an open torrent website can be a cumbers YGG Torrent is probably not the first site that you think of when you think of public torrent tracker Research papers and the thesis of remarkable authors can be a great source of knowledge and can be pr In the past decade, t Torrent tracking websites have been around for a long time.

They enable the users to download indie c Tracker websites can be a great source to get free indie content. However, getting access to premium The main reason why most of the torrent users are always longing to be a part of a private tracker co Torrent sites - private or otherwise, are used by millions of people around the world.

When it comes An extensive variety of torrents, multiple genres, and incredible download speed are some of the best Torrent websites are known for adding and hiding ads on their website to get more clicks that result Private torrent trackers are revered because of their functionality. Users, these days, are increasin Audio News is one of the best kept secrets on the internet.

As a private torrent tracker, it has mana We have found a website that offers free indie content to the users without compromising on quality. After you have been torrenting for a while, there comes a time when you may be looking to up your gam When it comes time to find a seed box in order to up your torrenting game, it can be difficult to fig If you have spent much time researching seed boxes before, then you already know how much quality, pe With a name like Ultra Seed Box, hopes are high going into this seed box review.

EZTV is one of the legendary torrent tracking websites on the internet. The website offers torrents for free indie English T LostFilm is a Russian tracker turned gossip website that provides users with information about all the top news, and TV show Private torrent tracking sites are growing each year. An increasing number of users are inclined towa Being a part of a private torrent community is an honor for many.

Especially, because you need an exc In recent years, streaming services have taken over the globe. BakaBT is a private torrent tracker site based on BitTorrent. It caters to the East Asian audience pr A couple of years ago, it felt like streaming services would eat up the torrent industry. However, bo You can find the most popular torrent sites, organized by popularity.

Bookmark and share this non-stop updated torrent site. Updated: Today, torrent sites listed. Best Torrent Sites Have you been looking for an easy, simple, and user-friendly way to find the top 10 best torrent sites on the web? Well, you have come to the right place. I have combed through my hundreds of torrent website reviews in order to bring you only the best of the best resources for finding your favorite free indie movies, TV shows, music, eBooks, software, games, and much, much more.

Come check out the 10 greatest torrent websites today! Ten best rated torrent sites. The legendary selection — just a click away! Introduction Is it fair to call torrenting a hobby? Introduction Where would we be without free indie music? The art form commonly referred to as th Introduction Since the launch of torrents in the world of the internet, there have been two different types of tor Introduction Russia has an incredible amount of torrent websites that let you download all kinds of free indie con Introduction In the past few decades, many torrent sites have risen to the occasion, but very few have been able t Introduction With so many different torrent search engines out there to choose from, how are you supposed to be ab Introduction Kick Ass Torrents can stand in as a great example of what every great torrent search engine should of Introduction So, you are looking for a new torrent search engine … well, you have come to the right place.

Torrent Search Engine Torrent Search Engines make it easier than ever to browse thousands of torrents from multiple sites all with one search. If you are looking for the Google of torrenting, come check out my list of the best torrent search engines today! Use search these torrent search engines. Introduction There are so many different torrent search engines out there to choose from nowadays, finding the bes Introduction Private and open tracker websites often fall short on free indie content and also have different rest Introduction What is your preferred way to download torrents?

Introduction Sometimes no matter how many individual torrent sites that you look through, it seems like you might Introduction Which is the best torrent site for you? Lounge VA - V. Sax for Sex [romantic collection, , flac ]. Thrash Metal [CD] Metallica " Shulman - FLAC. Tanzwut - Schattenreiter [][medieval industrial rock][ flac ]. Childish Gambino - 3. Kendrick Lamar - Mr. Radiohead - The King of Limbs Flac. Linkin Park Hybrid Theoryth. Edition- FLAC FLAC 2.

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