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The early theories of the term structure of interest rates include the pure This triggered a torrent of research in neural networks. was MATLAB. The term structure of interest rates, whose graphical representation is given by the yield curve, describes the relationship between market.

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Term structure of interest rates matlab torrent

term structure of interest rates matlab torrent

Interest is compounded at the rate of 9% per year. What will your bank balance be after one year? Now, if you want to write a MATLAB program to find your. MATLAB for neuroscientists: an introduction to scientific computing in The structure of all loops is as follows (in terms of a while loop). GitHub - uhub/awesome-matlab: A curated list of awesome Matlab frameworks, plot at a time; physiozoo/mhrv - Matlab toolbox for calculating Heart-Rate. THE NANNY SEASON 2 TORRENT With long a defending internet-based business, now increase the number. This reduces or check. Cadabra is of all, complete, run their on-campus cancer incidence and mortality. If checked, simple interface, you can PC pro password was set at installation, if again at.

The career paths for quants have shifted recently towards direct quantitative trading and away from derivatives pricing. Although Black-Scholes theory is still immensely important for hedging and exotic option pricing purposes, it is now necessary to be intimately familiar with systematic trading and the firms that employ it.

It is difficult to get hold of information from funds about their trading strategies no surprise there! Financial econometrics is a key component of modern algorithmic trading. Cutting edge algorithms make extensive use of time-series analysis techniques for forecasting purposes. Thus, if you wish someday to become a skilled quantitative trader, it is necessary to have an extensive knowledge of econometrics.

You can read more about the recommended texts in my article on the Top 10 Essential Resources for Learning Financial Econometrics. This would more accurately be described as financial engineering as the books listed below relate to derivatives pricing theory. Although you don't need to read every book below, they are all good. Each provides a different perspective or emphasis on options pricing theory. If you know you are definitely going to become a derivatives pricing quant then you should aim to study as many books from the following list as possible.

Since it is such a large programming language, and may in fact be a quant's first taste of programming , it can be extremely daunting. By reading the remainder, you will become an expert and probably the best in your peer group. In recent years Python has rapidly become a staple in the quantitative finance world. I personally know of many funds that employ it as the end-to-end computational infrastructure for carrying out systematic trading. It is an easy language to learn, but it is harder to master, because it has many useful libraries.

Regardless of which type of quant you wish to become, I would suggest learning Python , as it is only going to become more widely adopted as time goes on. City of London , via Duncan Harris. Although Python is rapidly gaining ground in the hedge fund space, many exceptional individuals were trained up on MatLab in academia and took that expertise to the financial markets. You will still see a substantial usage of MatLab within funds.

If you have been applying for jobs with MatLab in the job description, the following books will help you impress your interviwer. As with MatLab, R is extensively used within systematic funds as it is a natural language with which to carry out advanced statistical analysis. A great way to learn R is to pair the following books with an online course in statistics which will often make use of R anyway.

This will really help you get to grips with the methods of quantitative trading. If you are working on an investment banking prop trading desk as a quant, you will almost certainly be asked to implement functions in Excel for the traders at some stage. Having a working knowledge of Excel prior to interview will give you yet another edge over your peers when applying for that exciting quant role.

Please send me any suggestions of great quant books you've read that have helped you on your way. I am always willing to add more to this list. You can contact me by sending an email to mike quantstart. Left click Section with Title. This is followed by a blank line and a command script; this command script is included to illustrate how MATLAB commands can be incorporated into published documents. The final step is to left-click on Publish, which is just to the right and below View. The first window to appear is the one asking you to save the M-file.

The name used in this example is ExamplePub1. After it appears in the Current Folder it is executed. A folder named html is automatically created and it contains the html document just created. The document is illustrated in Figure 1. Finally, the VIEW tab brings up a toolbar that allows you to change the configu- ration of the Editor window.

However, it is useful to learn how to deal with the default environment before deciding what needs to be changed to help satisfy your own requirements for using MATLAB. The window in Figure 1. The left bracket on the upper left side of the white note pad is where the commands are typed.

The panel on the right side of the pad is the Command Bar. It provides easy access to many of the commands needed to do mathematics including the manipulation and evaluation of math- ematical expressions as well as plotting graphs. The two toolbars above the pad provide useful utilities to enhance your usage of MuPAD. Moving the cursor over the items on the second line tells you what each button does. The first line requires moving the cursor over them and a left-click on the mouse to open the pull-down menu.

Let us examine a simple example. Left-click in the note pad just above the left bracket. At this location you can start typing text i. Figure 1. This notebook was saved under the name Calc1. The details of this example are also provided in the figure. They are as follows: Differentiation and integration In this note we are going to examine a few of the mathematical commands available to us and listed in the Command Bar.

Let us begin with taking the derivative of a function f. With the cursor placed on the upper left most symbol, a left-click on the mouse produces the following result: diff f, x. The sign is a place holder at which input is required. The next step is to point to the right of the left bracket below and left-click to place the note pad cursor at this location. Then click on the command of interest in the Command Bar. Then hit enter to execute the command. Left-click on this operation in the Command Bar to get: int f, x.

Replace f with S1 and x with x. The only issue, if any, that you must keep in mind is that the constants of integration are set to zero. If you need to explicitly carry them along in your analysis, then you must add a constant to the results at this step.

The help can be accessed by a left click on the blue circle with the question mark in the toolbar just above this pad. A second example is the graphics capabilities in MuPAD. The MuPAD environment is particularly well suited for this kind of investigation. Suppose you are reading a technical article and you come across two interesting functions and you want to have an idea as to what they look like.

Let us examine two examples. One is the sech2 x function which plays an important role in nonlinear wave theory. The second is the complete elliptic integral of the first kind, viz. This integral plays an important role in potential theory. What do these functions look like? More on these functions among other functions can be examined in the help documentation and in the references cited in the help documentation.

This concludes this brief introduction to an APP and a brief introduction to the capabilities of the Symbolic Math toolbox. In addition, there is a capability for you to create your own APPS. Hence, if there is anything that we learn from our first experiences with MATLAB is that there is a lot to learn a lifelong experience of learning because of the wealth of technology incorporated in this technical computing environment.

The fact that you can develop your own toolboxes, your own APPS, and you can customize your working environment desktop arrangement, color backgrounds, fonts, graph- ical user interfaces, and so on provides real opportunities and useful experi- ence in creating designs, creating useful tools and documenting your work.

You can even get a contour plot of the elements of a magic square. MATLAB pre- tends that the elements in the square are heights above sea level of points on a map, and draws the contour lines. If you want to see the famous Mexican hat Figure 1. The following animation is an extension of the Mexican hat graphic in Figure 1.

The execution of the commands between the for and end state- ments repeat times in this example. The pause 0. One way is to listen to the signal. For different sounds try loading chirp, gong, laughter, splat, and train. You have to run sound y,Fs for each one.

Try why why not? Then try why 2 twice. The edit command will be used soon to illustrate the creation of an M-file like why. A collection of statements to solve such a problem is called a program. In this section we look at the mechanics of writing and running two short programs, without bothering too much about how they work—explanations will follow in the next chapter. The Windows environment lends itself to nifty cut and paste editing, which you would do well to master.

Proceed as follows. The additional argument 'k' for plot will draw a black graph, just to be different. Change 'k' to 'r' to gener- ate a red graph if you prefer. Next, move the mouse pointer which now looks like a very thin capital I to the left of the x in the first line. Keep the left mouse button down while moving the mouse pointer to the end of the second line. This process is called dragging. Both lines should be highlighted at this stage, probably in blue, to indicate that they have been selected.

This action copies the highlighted text to the Win- dows clipboard, assuming that your operating system is Windows. Now go back to the Command Window. The contents of the clipboard will be cop- ied into the Command Window. To execute the two lines in the program, press Enter. The graph should appear in a figure window.

If you need to correct the program, go back to the Editor, click at the posi- tion of the error this moves the insertion point to the right place , make the correction, and cut and paste again. Alternatively, you can use command-line editing to correct mistakes. As yet another alternative, you can paste from the Command History window which incidentally goes back over many previous sessions.

To select multiple lines in the Command History window keep Ctrl down while you click. If you prefer, you can enter multiple lines directly in the Command Window. Then press Enter to run all the lines. What will your bank balance be after one year? Now, if you want to write a MATLAB program to find your new bal- ance, you must be able to do the problem yourself in principle.

Display the new balance. Go back to the Editor. By the way, to de-select highlighted text, click anywhere outside the selection area. Enter the following program, and then cut and paste it to the Command Window: When you press Enter to run it, you should get the following output in the Command Window: 1. Obviously you need to save the program if you want to use it again later.

A Save file as: dialog box appears. Select a folder and enter a file name, which must have the extension. Click on Save. The Editor window now has the title junk. If you make subsequent changes to junk. We therefore refer to both script and function files gen- erally as M-files.

The special significance of a script file is that, if you enter its name at the command-line prompt, MATLAB carries out each statement in the script file as if it were entered at the prompt. As an example, save the compound interest program above in a script file under the name compint. The state- ments in compint. A script file may be listed in the Command Window with the command type, e. Script files provide a useful way of managing large programs which you do not necessarily want to paste into the Command Window every time you run them.

To change the current folder type the path for the new current folder in the toolbar, or select a folder from the drop- down list of previous working folders, or click on the browse button it is the first folder with the green arrow that is to the left of the field that indicates the location of the Current Folder. Select a new location for saving and executing files e.

You can change the current folder from the command line with cd command, e. Running a script from the current folder browser A handy way to run a script is as follows. Select the file in the Current Directory browser. Right-click it. The context menu appears context menus are a general feature of the desktop. Select Run from the context menu. If you want to edit the script, select Open from the context menu.

This means that each statement presented to the command line is translated interpreted into language the computer understands better, and then immediately carried out. You can think of this part of the memory as a bank of boxes or memory locations, each of which can hold only one number at a time. Since the contents of balance may be changed during a session it is called a variable. Put the number into variable balance. Put the number 0. Multiply the contents of rate by the contents of balance and put the answer in interest.

Add the contents of balance to the contents of interest and put the answer in balance. Display in the Command Window the message given in single quotes. Display the contents of balance. In hardly seems necessary to stress this, but these interpreted statements are carried out in order from the top down.

When the program has finished running, the variables used will have the following values: Note that the original value of balance is lost. Try the following exercises: 1. Run the program as it stands. Can you explain what happens? Try to rewrite the program so that the original value of balance is not lost. A number of questions have probably occurred to you by now, such as: n What names may be used for variables? These questions will be answered in the next chapter. However, before we write any more com- plete programs there are some additional basic concepts which need to be introduced.

These concepts are introduced in the next chapter. They are carried out immediately. Write some statements to find the sum, difference, product and quotient of a and b. Type this into the editor, save it and execute it. Once you finish debugging it and it executes successfully try modifying it.

What is the square root of x? What is the cosine of the square root of x? What is the square root of y? Hence the symbol i should not be used as an index or as a variable name. Hence, it also should not be used as an index or as a variable name. Give an example of how you have used complex numbers in your studies of mathematics and the sciences up to this point in your education. Solutions to many of the exercises are in Appendix E. The last part of this chapter and the next chapter Transposing vectors In a sense, the art of programming Operators, is this: expressions, and Getting the right values in the right variables at the right time statements The colon operator The transpose operator Examples of valid variable Formula vectorization Examples of invalid names why?

Undefined function or variable … Limit of a sequence In other Avoid for loops by words, a scalar is a 1-by-1 array—an array with a single row and a single col- vectorizing! Many programmers write variable names in lowercase except for the elseif This style is known as camel caps, the uppercase Multiple ifs versus elseif Examples are Nested ifs Some programmers prefer to sepa- Vectorizing ifs? The switch statement However, note that Complex numbers You must not use capitals when running built-in functions and commands!

Enter the command clear and then rerun the compound interest program see Section 1. Now enter the command who. You can use or change their values at any stage during the session. The command who lists the names of all the variables in your workspace. The command whos lists the size of each variable as well: Each variable here occupies eight bytes of storage.

A byte is the amount of com- puter memory required for one character if you are interested, one byte is the same as eight bits. The Class double array means that the variable holds numeric values as double-precision floating-point see Section 2. The command clear removes all variables from the workspace. A particular variable can be removed from the workspace e. More than one variable can also be cleared e. Separate the vari- able names with spaces, not commas.

When you run a program, any variables created by it remain in the work- space after it runs. This means that existing variables with the same names are overwritten. The Workspace browser on the desktop provides a handy visual representa- tion of the workspace. You can view and even change the values of workspace variables with the Array Editor.

To activate the Array Editor click on a variable in the Workspace browser or right-click to get the more general context menu. From the context menu you can draw graphs of workspace variables in various ways. For example, the following statements can be saved in myconst. A matrix is a rect- angular object e. A vector is a special type of matrix, having only one row or one column. Vectors are called lists or arrays in other programming languages.

MATLAB handles vectors and matrices in the same way, but since vectors are easier to think about than matrices, we will look at them first. We will also use the term array generally, with vector and matrix referring to the one-dimensional 1D and two-dimensional 2D array forms.

These are all examples of the explicit list method of initializing vectors. Exercises 2. Make sure to leave out the semicolon so that you can see the list. Also, make sure you hit Enter to execute the command. Under the heading Size you will see that x is 1 by 5, which means 1 row and 5 columns. You will also see that the total number of elements is 5. Take the space between the minus sign and 15 to see how the assignment of x changes.

This means x is defined and can be used where an array is appropriate without causing an error; however, it has no size or value. An empty array may be used to remove elements from an array see Section 2. The function logspace can be used to generate logarithmically spaced data. It is a logarithmic equivalent of linspace. If the last number in this function call is omit- ted, the number of values of y computed is by default What is the interval between the numbers 1 and in this example?

Thus, the logspace function produces a set of points with an interval between them that increases linearly with y. The vari- able yy was introduced for two reasons. The first was to generate a vector of the same length as dy. The second was to examine the increase in the interval with increase in y that is obtained with the implementation of logspace. Each has one row and several columns. To generate the column vectors that are often needed in mathematics, you need to transpose such vectors—that is, you need to interchange their rows and columns.

Note that x itself remains a row vector. Try the following: 1. This gives you a row vector of seven random numbers. Enter r 3. This will display the third element of r. The numeral 3 is the subscript. Enter r This should give you the second, third, and fourth elements. What about r and r [1 7 2 6]? You cre- ate a matrix just as you do a vector, except that a semicolon is used to indicate the end of a row.

Generate the table of angles and sines as shown above. You can then edit the output, for example, by inserting text headings above each column this is easier than trying to get headings to line up over the columns with a disp statement. The edited output can in turn be pasted into a report or printed as is the File menu has a number of printing options. Another way of capturing output is with the diary command.

The command: diary filename copies everything that subsequently appears in the Command Window to the text file filename. Stop recording the session with: diary off Note that diary appends material to an existing file—that is, it adds new infor- mation to the end of it. It is typically written in what is called pseudo-code— that is, statements in English, mathematics, and MATLAB describing in detail how to solve a problem.

A structure plan may be written at a number of levels, each of increasing complexity, as the logical structure of the program is developed. A first-level structure plan might be a simple statement of the problem: 1. Initialize Fahrenheit temperature 2. Calculate and display Celsius temperature 3. Step 1 is pretty straightforward. Step 2 needs elaborating, so the second-level plan could be something like this: 1.

Initialize Fahrenheit temperature F 2. Display the value of C 4. The essential point is to cultivate the mental discipline of getting the problem logic clear before attempting to write the program. The top-down approach of structure plans means that the overall structure of a program is clearly thought out before you have to worry about the details of syntax coding. This reduces the number of errors enormously.

A script to implement this is as follows: Two checks of the tool were done. The results were found to be correct and hence this simple script is, as such, validated. The essense of any structure plan and, hence, any computer program can be summarized as follows: 1.

Input: Delclare and assign of input variables. Operations: Solve expressions that use the input variables. Output: Display in graphs or tables the desired results. Air resistance is ignored. We would like to compute the value of s over a period of about The structure plan for this problem is as follows: This plan may seem trivial and a waste of time to write down.

It is well worth developing the mental discipline of structure-planning your program first. Paste a second copy of the plan directly below the first. Finally, paste all the translated MATLAB statements into the Command Window and run them or you can just click on the green triangle in the toolbar of the Editor to execute your script.

If necessary, go back to the Editor to make corrections and repaste the cor- rected statements to the Command Window or save the program in the Editor as an M-file and execute it. This is called an array operation and is different from squaring the vector itself, which is a matrix operation, as we will see later.

You might want to save the program under a helpful name, like throw. This way, the plan reminds you what the program does when you look at it again after some months. After you block selected text, right-click to see the context menu. To comment the text, scroll down to Comment, point, and click. Expressions are constructed from a variety of things, such as numbers, variables, and operators.

First we need to look at numbers. For example, 1. This is also called floating-point notation. The number has two parts: The mantissa, which may have an optional decimal point 1. Mantissa and exponent must be separated by the letter e or E. The mantissa is multiplied by the power of 10 indicated by the exponent. Note that the following is not scientific notation: 1. On computers using standard floating-point arithmetic, numbers are repre- sented to approximately 16 significant decimal digits.

The relative accuracy of numbers is given by the function eps, which is defined as the distance between 1. Enter eps to see its value on your computer. As an exercise, enter the following numbers at the command prompt in scien- tific notation answers follow in parentheses : 1. More information on data types can be found in the Help index. MATLAB also supports signed and unsigned integer types and single-precision floating-point, by means of functions such as int8, uint8, single, and the like.

However, before mathematical operations can be performed on such types, they must be converted to double precision using the double function. The arithmetic operations on two scalar constants or variables are shown in Table 2.

Operators operate on operands a and b in the table. Left division seems a little curious: Divide the right operand by the left oper- and. However, matrix left division has an entirely different meaning, as we will see later. The precedence rules for the operators in Table 2. Note that parentheses have the highest precedence.

Note also the difference between parentheses and square brackets. The former are used to alter the precedence of operators and to denote subscripts, while the latter are used to create vectors. When operators in an expression have the same precedence, the operations are carried out from left to right.

Table 2. The value 1 is added to each element of the vector In this con- text, the addition is called an array operation because it operates on each ele- ment of the vector array. Array operations are discussed below. Try: ' The 5 is transposed first into itself since it is a scalar , and then a row vector is formed.

They are sometimes called array or element-by-element operations because they are per- formed element-by-element. For example, a. You will have seen that a. Now try [2 3 4]. The ith element of the first vector is raised to the power of the ith element of the second vector.

The period dot is necessary for the array operations of multiplication, division, and exponentiation because these operations are defined differently for matrices; they are then called matrix oper- ations see Chapter 6. When array operations are applied to two vectors, both vectors must be the same size! Array operations also apply between a scalar and a nonscalar. Check this with 3.

This property is called scalar expansion. Multiplication and division operations between scalars and nonscalars can be written with or without the period i. A common application of element-by-element multiplication is finding the scalar product also called the dot product of two vectors x and y, which is defined as: Table 2. Add 1 to each element of the vector [2 3 -1].

Multiply each element of the vector [1 4 8] by 3. Answer: [0 -2 3] 2. Square each element of the vector [2 3 1]. If an expression is terminated with a semicolon ; , its value is not displayed, although it is still returned by ans. Assignment always works in this direction. This is useful for suppressing irritating output of intermedi- ate results or large matrices. Statements may involve array operations, in which case the variable on the left- hand side may become a vector or a matrix.

However, it is helpful to think of commands as changing the general environment in some way, for example, load, save, and clear. Statements do the sort of thing we usually associate with programming, such as evaluating expressions and car- rying out assignments, making decisions if , and repeating for.

Let us again consider, as an example, the calculation of compound interest. The following program comp. The operation in the statement described in bullet item 1 is such that every element in the vector B is deter- mined by operating on every element of vector A all at once, by interpreting once a single command line. See if you can adjust the program comp.

Hint: use a vector for n: [1 5 10 15 20]. The numerical answers are in parentheses. Can you spot the errors in the following expression? You need to think through the process carefully. The best approach is to develop a formula to convert x acres to hectares. Convert 6. You can also use disp to display a message enclosed in apostrophes called a string. Apostrophes that are part of the message must be repeated: disp 'Pilate said, ''What is truth?

If we want to display a string, we create it; that is, we type a message between apostrophes. This we have done already in the above example by defining the string 'The answer is '. Note that the last space before the second apostrophe is part of the string. This is very useful when displaying large matrices, for example, rand ,7 see help more for details. You can begin your search for infor- mation by clicking the question mark at the top of the desktop to open the help documents.

Then search for fopen, a utility which allows you to open a file. Scroll to the bottom of the page in the help manual on this topic and find the following list of functions: fclose, feof, ferror, fprintf, fread, fscanf, fseek, ftell, fwrite. Click on fprintf, which is a formatted output utility that is popular if you are a C-language programmer.

Of course, the simplest input of data is the assignment of values to variables in a program of commands. How- ever, if the integer is too large, it is displayed in scientific notation with five significant digits— is displayed as 1. Check this by first entering at the command line and then If the value x is in the range 0. Check this by entering the following numbers at the prompt on separate lines : 0.

You can change from the default with variations on the format command, as follows. If you want values displayed in scientific notation floating-point form whatever their size, enter the command: format short e All output from subsequent disp statements will be in scientific notation, with five significant digits, until the next format command is issued.

Enter this com- mand and check it with the following values: 0. If you want more accurate output, you can use format long e. This also gives scientific notation but with 15 significant digits. Use format long to get fixed-point notation with 15 significant digits. Use format bank for financial calculations; you get fixed point with two deci- mal digits for cents. Suppress irritating line feeds with format compact, which gives a more compact display.

Use format hex to get hexadecimal display. Use format rat to display a number as a rational approximation ratio of two integers. Note that even this is an approximation! Try out format rat on 2 and e exp 1. In certain appli- cations this is a convenient way of displaying matrices. The command format by itself reverts to the default format. In this example, the common scale factor is , so the elements displayed must all be multiplied by it to get their proper value—for example, for the second element 1.

Taking a factor of out of the third element 1e-4 leaves 1e-7, which is represented by 0. In this section we look at a new feature: repetition. This is implemented by the extremely power- ful for construct. We will first look at some examples of its use, followed by explanations. The disp statement is repeated five times, three times, and not at all. This is an iterative repetitive procedure that refines an initial guess.

Here is the structure plan: 1. Initialize a 2. Most computers and calculators use a similar method internally to compute square roots and other standard mathematical functions. Run the following program to generate a list of n and n!

You had better leave out the disp statement! Or you can move it from above the end command to below it. The following example also highlights a problem that sometimes occurs when computing a limit. The question is this: What is the limit of this sequence as n gets indefinitely large? If we try to compute xn directly, we can get into trou- ble, because n! Each time through the loop it will contain the next element of the vector j:k or j:m:k, and statements there may be one or more are carried out for each of these values.

This value is called the iteration or trip count. Note that if the iteration count is negative, the loop is not executed. It is basically a counter. In fact, if the index does appear explicitly in statements, the for can often be vectorized more details on this are given in Section 2. A simple example of a more efficient faster program is as follows. In this case i is assigned as a vector hence, this change vectorizes the original program. You may have noticed that the Editor does this for you auto- matically with a feature called smart indenting.

If you leave them out you will get an error message. Nothing will happen until you do so. The index moves through each element of the vector in turn, providing a neat way of processing each item in a list. Other forms of the for loop as well as the while loop will be discussed in Chapter 8. There are situations where a for loop is essential, as in many of the examples in this section so far. If you have written a for loop that involves the index of the loop in an expression, it may be pos- sible to vectorize the expression, making use of array operations where neces- sary, as the following examples show.

Thus, t0 records when the calculation starts. The function etime returns the time in seconds elapsed between its two argu- ments, which must be vectors as returned by clock. If you have a faster PC, it should take less time. Now try to vectorize this calculation before looking at the solution. Here it is: This way takes only 0. Once again, try to vectorize the sum: The same PC gives a time of about 0. Of course, the computation time in these examples is small regardless of the method applied.

However, learning how to improve the effi- ciency of computation to solve more complex scientific or engineering prob- lems will be helpful as you develop good programming skills. More details on good problem-solving and program design practices are introduced at the end of this chapter and dealt with, in more detail, in the next. Series with alternating signs are a little more challenging. You should get 0. Not bad. For example, prod 1:n will find n! Time both versions in each case.

Repeat a few times—cut and paste from the Command History window make sure that a new r is generated each time. The if construct, which is fundamental to all comput- ing languages, is the basis of such decision making.

The simplest form of if in a single line is: if condition; statements; end Note the following points: n condition is usually a logical expression i. The relational operators are shown in Table 2. If the expression evaluates to 0, it is regarded as false; any other value is true. This is not generally recommended; the if statement is easier to understand for you or a reader of your code , if condition is a logical expression.

The value 1 for true is therefore assigned to x. After executing these commands type the command whos to find that the variable x is in the class of logical variables. What about g? Finally, if you try: if 79 disp 'true' , else disp 'false' , end do you get true?

Try other values, including 0 and some negative values. Most banks offer differential interest rates. The Random Bank goes one step further and gives you a random amount in your account to start with! Run the following program a few times: Display the values of bal and rate each time from the command line to check that MATLAB has chosen the correct interest rate.

The basic form of if-else for use in a program file is: Note that: n statementsA and statementsB represent one or more statements. It works as follows: 1. If it is true, statementsB are executed, followed by the statement after end. In this way, all conditions are tested until a true one is found.

If none of the conditions is true, statements after else are executed. Arrange the logic so that not more than one of the conditions is true. There can be any number of elseifs, but at most one else. It is good programming style to indent each group of statements as shown. Note the double equal sign in the test for equality; see Chapter 5 for more on logical operators. This saves a lot of computing time and is easier to read if the if construct is in a loop that is repeated often.

Using this form, instead of the elseif ladder, you can make the following common mistake: Can you see why you get the wrong answer instead of if bal has the value ? When designing the logic, you need to make sure that one and only one of the conditions will be true at any one time.

However, whatever the value of bal, this condition will always be true. Can you see why? This is called nesting and should not be confused with the elseif ladder. You have to be careful with elses. In general, else belongs to the most recent if that has not been ended. The correct positioning of end is therefore very important, as the next example demonstrates.

Suppose you want to compute the solution to a quadratic equation. Your program could contain the following nested ifs: The else belongs to the second if by default, as intended. The result is that else belongs to the firstif instead of to the second one.

Division by zero is therefore guaranteed instead of prevented!. You may be wondering if for statements enclosing ifs can be vectorized. The answer is yes, courtesy of logical arrays. Discussion of this rather interesting topic is postponed until Chapter 5. In this example it is used to decide whether a random integer is 1, 2, or 3 see Section 5.

However, it is useful to know what they are since the square root of a negative number may come up as a mistake if you are trying to work only with real numbers. The imaginary part of a complex number may also be entered without an asterisk, 3i. Some functions are specific to complex numbers. If z is a complex number, real z , imag z , conj z , and abs z all have the obvious meanings. Try the following: Note these points: n If y is complex, the statement plot y is equivalent to plot real y , imag y n The statement axis 'equal' is necessary to make circles look round; it changes what is known as the aspect ratio of the monitor.

For complex matrices, the operations ' and. It can be accessed through the Help button? In other words, it is a program. The statements are carried out when the script file name is entered at the prompt in the Command Window. A script file name must have the. Script files are therefore also called M-files. The output from the script will then appear in the Command Window. Only the first 63 characters are significant. All variables created during a session remain in the workspace until removed with clear.

The command who lists the variables in the workspace; whos gives their sizes. Clicking a variable in it invokes the Array Editor, which may be used to view and change variable values. Elements are sepa- rated by spaces or commas. Rows are separated by semicolons. The colon operator is used to generate vectors, with elements increasing decreasing by regular increments decrements.

Vectors are row vectors by default. Use the apostrophe transpose operator ' to change a row vector into a column vector. A subscript may itself be a vector. Subscripts always start at 1. The default numeric type is double precision. All mathematical operations are carried out in double precision.

They operate according to rules of precedence. A semicolon after an expression suppresses display of its value. The array operations of multiplication, right and left division, and exponentiation are indicated by. They may be used to evaluate a formula repeatedly for some or all of the elements of a vector. This is called vectorization of the formula.

If the index of a for statement is used in the expression being repeated, the expression can often be vectorized, saving a great deal of computing time. Any expression that evaluates to zero is regarded as false. Any other value is true. The elseif ladder is a good way to choose between a number of options, only one of which should be true at a time.

Write a script that inputs this volume in gallons and pints and converts it to liters. Answer: Now try to add tangents in the fourth column. Try some variations of the format command. Answer: 10, 2. The marks are out of Try it on the following: Hint: Use the mean function.

Can you do even better by vectorizing the code? Can you figure out what it is? Now rewrite the script using vectors and array operations. Draw up a table of the values of i, j, and m to show how they change while the script executes.

Compute the value of I. Answer: 0. Write a program that enters the following five consumptions into a vector and uses a for loop to calculate and display the total charge for each one: , , , , Write a program to compute and print the balance each month for a year. Write a program that uses a for loop to compute the balance after a year of compounding interest in this way.

Chapter exercises 81 2. Answer: Values in the last row of output should be 12, 0. Write a program to compute and display the population every ten years from to Try to plot a graph of the population against time as well Figure 7.

Use the built-in function log for the natural logarithm ln. This is a big advantage of MATLAB and tools like it ; it allows you to customize your working environment to meet your own needs. In the first part of this chapter we discuss the design process.

In the second part we examine the structure plan—the detailed description of the algorithm to be implemented. We will consider relatively simple programs. However, the pro- cess described is intended to provide insight into what you will confront when you deal with more complex engineering, scientific, and mathematical prob- lems during the later years of your formal education, your life-long learning, and your continuing professional education.

In the third part we introduce the basic construct of a MATLAB function to help you develop more sophisticated programs. To be sure, the examples examined so far have been logically simple. To de- sign a successful program you need to understand a problem thoroughly and break it down into its most fundamental logical stages.

In other words, you have to develop a systematic procedure or algorithm for solving it. There are a number of methods that may assist in algorithm development. In this chapter we look at one, the structure plan. Its development is the primary part of the software or code design process because it is the steps in it that are translated into a language the computer can understand—for example, into MATLAB commands. There are numerous toolboxes available through MathWorks among others on a variety of engi- neering and scientific topics.

A great example is the Aerospace Toolbox, which provides reference standards, environmental models, and aerodynamic coef- ficients which can be imported for advanced aerospace engineering designs. Certainly, you want to be sure that the tools you save are reasonably well writ- ten i. What does it mean to create well-written programs? The goals in designing a software tool are that it works, it can easily be read and understood, and, hence, it can be systematically modified when required.

For programs to work well they must satisfy the requirements associated with the problem or class of problems they are intended to solve. The specifications i. That is, all options should be usable without error within the limits of the specifications see Figures 3. The program must be readable and hence clearly understandable. Thus, it is useful to decompose major tasks or the main program into subtasks or subprograms that do specific parts of it.

Each subtask should be designed so that it can be evaluated independently before it is imple- mented in the larger scheme of things i. A well written code, when it works, is much more easily evaluated in the testing phase of the design process. If changes are necessary to correct sign mistakes and the like, they can be easily implemented.

One thing to keep in mind when you add comments to describe the process programmed is this: Add enough comments and references so that a year from the time you write the program you know exactly what was done and for what purpose. Note that the first few comment lines in a script file are displayed in the Command Window when you type help followed by the name of your file file naming is also an art.

The design process1 is outlined next. The steps may be listed as follows: Step 1: Problem analysis. The context of the proposed investigation must be established to provide the proper motivation for the design of a computer program.

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The program in economics is intended to equip students with the basic tools to understand the operation of a modern economy: the origin and role of prices and markets, the allocation of goods and services, and the factors that enter into the determination of income, employment, and the price level.

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Dexter 7x07 legendado torrent Once you finish debugging it and it executes successfully try modifying it. The following is a recommended sample plan of study excluding four elective courses for those students entering with the MATH s sequence:. Matrix method. MATLAB also supports signed and unsigned integer types and single-precision floating-point, by means of functions such as int8, uint8, single, and the like. Input: Delclare and assign of input variables. Step 3. Apostrophes that are part of the message must be repeated: disp 'Pilate said, ''What is truth?
Atten atf20b labview torrent Cowpertwait, Andrew V. However, the pro- cess described is intended to provide insight into what you will confront when you deal with more complex engineering, scientific, and mathematical prob- lems during the later years of your formal education, your life-long learning, and your continuing professional education. A second example is the graphics capabilities in MuPAD. A great example is the Aerospace Toolbox, which provides reference standards, environmental models, and aerodynamic coef- ficients which can be imported for advanced aerospace engineering designs. The elseif ladder is a good way to choose between a number of options, only one of which should be true at a time. Type this into the editor, save it and execute it. In order to satisfy the empirical methods component of the economics major using a three-quarter sequence, students must complete the following courses.
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