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They were obliged to camp on the coast in wretched shelter, with only the poorest food. The winter was a severe one, disease spread, and hundreds died. Strubberg has taken for his subject the hardships of the first arrival of immigrants, but he has apparently drawn on the inci- dents connected with the combined arrivals of and The action of the novel consequently takes place during the latter " Cf.

The author was at this time in all probability living in the interior of Texas, in the vicinity of the Leona. It was only in that he was called to Friedrichs- burg as Colonial Director. He was consequently not acquainted with his material at first hand. Through his connections with the colony of Friedrichsburg in the following year he learned to know many of the immigrants themselves, and had beyond a doubt abundant opportunity to hear them relate their wanderings from the coast to the interior of Texas.

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In einer Hinsicht aber stimmten diese Leute sammtlich iiberein; sie waren Alle bis an die Zahne bewaffnet und trugen Pistolen, Jagdmesser, so wie Dolche im Giirtel, was ihnen, im Verein mit ihren abnormen Barten, ein desperates, martialisches Ansehen gab. Food and drink was sold at exorbitant prices. By means of a little sailing vessel the Werners are taken from Galveston to Indian Point, where other Germans had also pitched their camp. From here the Werners had hoped to be conveyed to the colony's lands, but the same difficulties pre- vailed, and they remained here.

The extreme heat and want of proper food soon brought on disease, and many fell victims, among them one of Werner's daughters. The immigrants are driven to despair. Many of them, taking with them only the barest necessities, started out to reach Neu-Braunfels on foot, two hundred miles distant ; only a few ever reached their destina- tion, the remaining ones fell by the wayside.

An historical account of these hardships: Franz Loeher's Gesch. Zustdnde der Deutschen in Amerika. Cincinnati und Leipzig, Also Olmsteed's Wanderungen durcJi Texas, etc. Their son Albert had been sent to Neii-Brannfels in the hopes of having a vehicle sent from thence. A few native whites hearing of the distress of the Ger- mans, came to camp with their vehicles and extorted exorbitant prices for transportation.

The Werners finally submit themselves to a heartless teamster, who extracts an enormous sum from them. Their drive over the sandy waste under a glaring sun, is strikingly pictured. The teamster turns off from the road to Neu-Braunfels, forsakes them there, returns and extorts more money from them. The Werners contract the fever on this pro- tracted journey and only the eldest daughter, Matilda, survives.

The teamster and his brother seize all the Werner possessions. Albert remains in Neu-Braunfels for some time ; the author incidentally introduces the life and activities of that German settlement. Albert, on returning to Indian Point finds the graves of his parents. The Mexican War occupies a prominent place in the latter part of the work. We follow Albert as one of the Texas rangers a body of ununiformed, undisciplined men, says the author, whose only Commando lay in the words "at them!

A beauti- ful romance develops between Albert and Dona Rosa, which results in a happy union. The novel ends with a brilliant wedding scene. Strubberg's manner of treating his- torical matter is well illustrated by his introduction of the Mexi- can War. Conspicuous figures such as Generals Taylor and Fricdrich Aniuutd Slnihhcrg 25 Worth are mentioned, but seldom permitted to take an active part.

A Captain Falkland takes part in the dialog and remarks that he is a German. Definite historical references in connection with Strubberg's introduction of the settlement of Neu-Braunfels is more or less avoided. Mention is made of Graf H. This is Strubberg's first attempt at a shorter form of the novel. It is perhaps unfortunate that Strubberg did not resort to a briefer form more frequently, though it must be admitted that material, so varied in nature, was ill adapted for expression in a brief concise form.

This work appeared in the same year with An der Indianer- Grenae. In the introduction to these two "Scenen" the author has given a historical account of the differences that led to the war between Mexico and the United States. The first novelette. Die Amerikaner in Mexico, occupies pages. It is the first of Strubberg's works to have a Spanish milieu. It is in reality a series of scenes. A slender romance is introduced toward the end of the work, but it is almost obscured by the wealth of military and cultural details introduced.

In the harbor lay the American fleet of war, also sending forth volleys of thunder. Under similar strains the Mexican in- "The first two abbreviations probably refer to Graf Edmond von Hatz- feld and Graf Karl von Castell ; the last two the writer has not located. List of members of the "Mainzer Adelsverein" in Festaufgahe, p.

Festaiisgabe, pp. Now the fall of the City of Mexico itself is announced. Colonel Harris, Captain Falkland and Lieutenant Moorland, three officers who had marched triumphantly with the American General Scott into Mexico, had brought this message to Vera Cruz at break of day. The joy of the people knew no end. The stars and stripes waved over the black fortress.

The American Army is described thus p. Strubberg always appears well in touch with the activity of the Germans then in North America. The author delights to introduce Germans into his works, and usually portrays them in an attractive manner. Holzinger had during the bombardment of Vera Cruz heroically defended Fort Santa Barbara against the Americans, and when the flag pole was broken by an American ball, had, amid a torrent of bullets, held up the flag.

Through his bravery he had won the esteem of the Americans and been given his freedom on condition that he would no longer serve in the Mexican Army. We are led into the country palace of Santa Anna, the Na- poleon of the South, as he is called. A vivid picture of the Spanish guerillas is drawn. Gambling, horsethieving and love- making between American soldiers and Spanish beauties give the scenes a dash of color.

The second novelette, Der Sturm von San Antonio, is better proportioned and contains more unity. The author first gives a brief historical sketch of Texas, "das Nordamerikanische Ita- FricdricJi Aniiaiid Sinihbcrg 27 lien," since the days of Ferdinand Cortcz up to , when the great migrations to Texas began. Strubberg writes p. Taugenichtse, Schwindler, Diebe, Ranber und Morder siichten hier eine sichere Zufluchtsstatte, imd Sklaveneigner, die von ihren Glaubigern be- driingt waren, flohen mit Hunderten von Negern nach diesem Asyl.

It is about this time that the action of the novel takes place. Sealsfield, we remember, had operated in about the same period in his Cajiltenhitch. Unlike that of most of the earlier works the milieu of this novelette lies beyond the author's own personal experience. It is perhaps for this reason, too, that we miss his own familiar figure in the work. Strub- berg's intimate acquaintance with the territory aids him in strik- ing the proper atmosphere, even if the action takes place several years before his own activities in that region.

The crude and vagabondish character of the population in these early days in Texas is happily depicted, and in strong contrast to the beautiful scenic background. In stronger contrast still is the pretty romance between young Gordon and the Spanish maid Beatrice de Al- monte. Gordon is an idealist and stands up for the Indian whom he thinks shamefully and unjustly treated. Sie nahmen ihnen nicht allein ihr Eigenthum, trieben sie von ihrer Heimath weiter und weiter dem oden Gestein der Anden zu, sie jagten sie wie die wilden Thiere, sie erschlugen ganze Stamme; sie brachten ihnen zerstorende Krankheiten, sie gaben ihnen Branntwein und brachen alle Vertrage, alle Versprechungen, die sie ihnen gegeben hatten.

The fol- lowing passage is almost Hebraic in character p. The author is very evidently in sympathy with the red man's cause. The ignoble actions of the whites, their faithlessness in upholding the peace contract with the Indians, the terrible vengeance which the latter reek upon them, to which Gordon and Beatrice fall innocent victims, form the machinery of the work.

Scencn aus den Kdmpfen der Mexicaner und Nordamerika- ner was never republished. Carl Riimp- ler. The work is dedicated as follows : "Dem Freiherrn J. Strubberg is here dealing with an historical Indian character. Mopotuska appears to be a perversion of Mopechucope old owl. Festausgabe, p. Fricdrich Armand Striihhcrg 29 "fiir manche hcrbe Stiinde meines langjahrigen ernsten Wander- lebens Ersatz zii finden. Its ex- treme length, quite unmotivated, and the multitude of crimes and horrors scattered over its pages, prevent it from occupying a very high place as a literary work.

The author for once steps out of the bounds of his own personal experience. The story begins a few years after the treaty between the United States and Spain February, 1 , in which the latter resigned her interests in Florida. The scene opens on the northern border of Florida. It is the life and crimes of Ralph Norwood which form the material for Strubberg's novel. The history of the struggles of the Seminoles in Florida and the final removal of the small remaining number by the Government to the Far West serves as the ethnographic background.

No attempt is made to characterize the Indian by peculiarities of language. The following speech, delivered by Tallihadjo, the chief of the hunted Seminoles, is an example of the author's usual Indian speech Vol. Der Zorn des grossen Geistes liegt schwer auf unserm Volke, und das starke Herz Talli- hadjo's hat schon viel um dasselbe gelitten.

Er wollte ihm auch sein Land opfern und es den Weissen iiberlassen, darum zog er mit seinem Stamme davon, ohne dass seine Fahrte sagte wohin. A German sailor is on the pirate vessel. The author never neglects to introduce Germans into his works. The story now shifts to Florida, then again to Baltimore and along the sea coast ; the reader is even given an excursion up the Hudson to Trenton Falls, as well as Niagara. The terrible atrocities against the Indians, partly brought on through Ralph Norwood, who acts as a government spy, reflect no credit on the whites.

The author's sympathies point strongly toward the Indians. At the end of the fourth volume, the last decisive battle of the Seminole war is fought. The few remain- ing Seminoles are taken by the government to the western part of the State of Arkansas. The fifth volume opens there sixteen years later.

The author is again on the territory he knows so well. He promptly introduces himself, his white stallion and his old dog, who here bears the name of Guard. He introduces himself as follows : "Farland, ein Deutscher von Geburt, war der erste Ansiedler in dieser Gegend gewesen, zu jener Zeit als dieselbe sich noch weit und breit in dem Besitz der Indianer befand.

Er war Arzt, hatte aber seine wissenschaftlichen medizinischen Kennt- nisse seit seinem hiesigen Aufenthalt nie anders benutzt, als um unentgeltlich seinen, sich taglich mit jedem Jahr betrachtlicher mehrenden weissen Nachbarn und auch den ihm befreundeten In- dianern beizustehen, wenn sie seiner Hiilfe bedurften.

Er war ein Mann im kraftigsten Alter, von ungewohnlicher geistiger und korperlicher Ausdauer, der mit vielen schweren Schicksalen ge- kampft, herbe Leiden getragen und sich dennoch Antheil an den Freuden des Lebens und Theilnahme fiir das Wohl und Wehe seiner Mitmenschen erhalten hatte.

Though so near the natural conclusion of the novel, a violent affair of the heart between Farland and Berenice, daugh- ter of Ralph Norwood, now comes into the foreground. Berenice dies. The work ends with Tallihadjo's terrible revenge on Ralph Norwood for his traitorous deeds against the Indians, his own mother's kin, while still in Florida. Ralph Norwood and the pirate captain of the "Sturmvogel" are both burned at the stake. Friedrich Arriiand Striibberg 31 Carl Riimpler.

They were written at a time when the agitations of slavery in America had reached their climax in the Civil War. Striibberg, though we infer from his works that he himself owned slaves, manifests an antipathy to slavery as an institution. He frequently introduces slaves into his works, but usually por- trays them in such a way as to arouse the sympathy of the reader.

This is the only one of Strubberg's works, however, devoted en- tirely to the negro. It would be gojng too far to credit Sklaverei in Amerika with direct anti-slavery tendencies. The author aims less at giving a wide cultural panorama of slavery in its minutest details than an interesting literary product. Sklaverei in Amerika is in a sense an epic trilogy on the black man. The beauty of the black man's life in his natural surroundings in Africa, his re- moval to America and entrance into bondage, the loves, sorrows, and tragedies of his descendants in slavery; this is the machinery with which Strubberg operates.

The plots of these three novels are more carefully con- structed, better motivated and more finely proportioned, being less hampered by the usual mass of episodes. As a cultural document of the period of slavery in America it has less value; as a purely literary achievement, however, it takes the first place among the author's many works.

The first novel. Die Quadrone, takes up pages. Strub- berg was very partial to the beautiful quadroons of the South and excelled especially in the description of those who had enjoyed exceptional advantages. The " Cf.

Description of quadroon ball in Bis in die IVildniss, p. Descriptions of a southern slave market, methods of buying and selling human ware, the sale of Leonta and her con- sequent life form the material for this novel. A fuller account of this work follows later in the considera- tion of its dramatized form. Die Midattin, the second novel, is somewhat longer, occupy- ing 33 1 pages.

Rosiana, like Leonta, also has a white father, a clergyman. Her mother is a negress. In this work at least, the author shows himself able to motivate a real conflict. Rosiana, possessed of great physical beauty, and having enjoyed excellent mental and moral training at the hands of her reverend father, is in every respect fitted to move on the same social plane as do the fairer daughters of the old city of Richmond.

Though endowed men- tally, and physically, with great beauty, Rosiana is an outcast. It is the clash of white against black. Lincoln, a prominent young advocate, an anti-aboli- tionist, remarks Vol. Note the various names Strubberg assumes when he himself appears. In "Farnwald" in An der Indianer- Grenze, "Farland" in Ralph Nonvood, and "Franval" in the above novel, the similarity of the vowels and consonants is very striking.

This similarity vvas no doubt resorted to in order to make the identification of the character with the author himself more easily perceptible. FricdricJi Armand Stntbbcrg 33 lass mich sehen, ob Dii gleichgiiltig gegen ihre Reize bleibst und ob Du ihnen gegeniiber noch behaupten kannst, class sie den Thieren niiher standen, als die zerbrechlichen geistlosen weissen Damen," sagte Fehrmann.

Der Gedanke daran macht sie mir schon zuwider," entgegnete Lincoln. Franval had been overtaken by misfortune and lost his bride. He had fled from the world and sought solace on the frontier of the West, where he had settled with several other unfortunates. Lincoln had fallen a victim to Rosiana's charms, staked his promising career, forsaken his friends, and fled with Rosiana to the extreme West, where he settled in a little town near the borders of Mex- ico, several hundred miles south of Franval's settlement.

Here Lincoln lived happily with Rosiana and their children. Strubberg is now again in his own frontier atmosphere. He stops to describe himself — the familiar, weather-beaten rider in leathern garments and his white stallion. Franval and Lincoln are again brought together. Lincoln's happiness is soon to be interrupted.

Rosiana's father had neglected to officially declare the freedom of his daughter, and upon his death his heirs claim her as saleable property. Lincoln's home is attacked ; he defends himself and family; Rosiana manages to escape, and Lincoln is imprisoned, but escapes by bribery and joins his family.

Fran- " The time of action of the first half of the novel, though not designated by definite textual data, is probably the latter thirties, when S. Die Negerin is the longest of the three novels comprised in Sklaverei in Amcrika. It occupies the last 95 pages of the second volume and the entire third volume of pages. Though not any of these three novels published under Skla- verei in Amerika are related to each other, a more natural order would have been: i.

Die Negerin; 2. Die Mulattin; 3. Die Qua- drone. In Die Negerin the author has opened the scene of action among the negro tribes of Africa, where half of the story is en- acted. In no other work is the author's imaginative and inventive ability more clearly shown. He is here operating with material totally foreign to him. This may account to a degree for the pre- ponderance of the romantic spirit. The negro prince Buardo, son of the King of the Annagus, and Semona, a negress of another tribe, are two of Strubberg's most poetic creations.

Buardo, while with his warriors on an elephant hunt, meets the slave-dealer Sarfzan, who has for years brought slaves from the eastern to the western part of Africa. His destination is the coastland of the King of Dahomey, whom he has long furnished with wives. Sarfzan, on hearing that Buardo is prince of the Annagus, de- sires to sell him some of his human wares.

Buardo, however, had enjoyed instruction in the Christian Mission in Cape Coast, and Sarfzan's dark beauties have little effect on him, until Sem- ona, the gem of the collection, is brought before him, "wie cine aus Ebenholz geschnittene Venus," writes Strubberg with his marvelous visualizing power Vol. II, p. Sie war eine hohe, edle Gestalt, ihr " Strubberg again describes the familiar palisaded fort and its interior furnishings. He mentions some valuable paintings on the wall Vol. Letters in the Appendix, Fricdrich Aruiand Stnihhcrg 35 Kopf war klein, ihr Nacken schlank und rnnd, und ihr voller Bu- sen wie aus schwarzem Marmor gehauen.

Um ihre breiten Hiif- ten lag ein scharlachrother seideiier Shawl gebunden, und mit gol- denen Schniiren waren die Sandalen itnter ihren kleinen Fiissen um ihre zierlichen Enkel befestigt. Ihr regelmassig schones Ge- sicht trug die Form der edelsten weissen Menschenrace Asiens, und eine Cirkassierin wiirde sie um ihr Profil beneidet haben.

Das Weiss ihrer grossen tiefdunkeln Augen war rein, wie die Perle an Persiens Gestaden und die Reihen ihrer wunderbar schon geformten Ziihne glanzten wie der Schnee auf den Gebirgen In- diens. Ihre reizend geschnittenen iippig vollen Lippen gliihten, wie die Granatbliithe in einer schwarzen Marmorschale und in ihrem melanchohschen seelenvollen Antilopenblick stand ihr Schicksal geschrieben. Ihr glanzend schwarzes Haar rollte sich dicht an ihrem Kopf in unzahHge kleine zierliche Lockchen zu- sammen und auf ihrer zarten Haut lag ein weicher Sammet- hauch.

The gentle love of these two negroes is depicted with a beauty and delicacy that puts to shame that of their white brethren. Of course Strubberg has idealized beyond recognition. He is again embodying Rous- seauian ideas. Strubberg has spared no effort to give his story color by the introduction of African scenery, and plants and ani- mals native to Africa.

The fierce wars between savage negro tribes are vividly described. At times, however, the reader feels that the author has transferred Indian customs to the negro. The love of Buardo and Semona, the recapture of Semona, together with Buardo by Sarfzan, their final disposal to a slave dealer who transports them to a slave-ship bound for America, form the contents of the first half of the novel. The author does not omit giving his readers an account of life on the slave ship, and the manner of plying between the African and American coasts under difficulties of the law.

In America Buardo and Semona are sold to the same planter. They live happily and are permitted to unite in marriage. The good fortune of the two slaves continues but for a little while, when conditions cause their owner to sell them apart. Their unhappy fate as slaves in America is told with a realism strongly in contrast with their romantic life in their tropical homes in Africa. The author, in poetic justice, finally after many difficulties brings Buardo and Semona together on a whaling ship.

While on an expedition south of Cape Horn, they manage one dark night to lower one of the small boats and effect their escape to a little island. Here amid beautiful surroundings Buardo and Semona live out the rest of their days in happiness. Through whale ships which occasionally stopped at the island they had re- ceived fowls and garden seeds, and wanted none of the necessi- ties of life.

The virtues of man in his simple state are very strikingly set forth in Buardo and Semona. That Rousseau's works were in the author's mind appears evident from a passage in which a prospective slave- buyer, being told of Semona's beauty and her present intense mourning for the lost Buardo, says Vol. HI, p. Pierre's Paid et Virginie, one of the first literary pieces to reflect Rousseau.

Sklavcrei in Amerika was never republished. One of its novels Die Mulattin was, however, published separately in Fricdrich Armand Struhhcrg 2 7 Ahenteuer eines deittschen Knaben in Aincrika. In a manner similar to that pursued in Alte iind Neue Hci- moth, Strubberg again introduces us to a German family, the Turners, on their comfortable little farm in the beautiful valley of the Werra. Through a cousin, who possesses a farm along the Chesapeake Bay in America, they are persuaded to migrate to America.

The family consists of Herr and Frau Turner, one daughter, two sons, and a related orphan, Carl Scharnhorst, whom the Turners had received into their family as one of their own. We follow the Turners over the Atlantic to Baltimore. Through a bank which has de- faulted in Baltimore they lose much of their money.

In despair they conclude to find a home in the Far West. On the voyage to America the Turners had become acquainted with one of the crew, the negro Daniel. The Turners, being Germans, did not enter- tain the same prejudice against negroes, and were especially kind and friendly to Dan. The negro decides to serve and accompany them to the West. The author, in bringing Dan into the German family as a servant, takes the opportunity of showing the Ameri- can attitude against the negro over against a foreigner's who en- tertains no such prejudices.

We follow the Turner family by train to Cincinnati, and thence by water to Memphis, where they start overland with two wagons drawn by horses and oxen. They reach the Indian terri- tory west of Arkansas and stop at Fort Towsen, where a post of dragoons was stationed in order to protect the white settler against the Indians.

He frequently mentions it in his works. He lets many of his German characters land there. After journeying a week longer they arrive at Preston, the last border settlement on the Red River. On the Choctaw Creek they find the "Warwick" clearing. They are persuaded to settle five miles away on Bear Creek.

The lad Carl Scharnhorst develops wonderful abilities as a huntsman, and it is his adventures that provide most of the ma- terial for this book. Dan, the negro, had earlier been a slave of the Indians, and through him Carl became thoroughly acquainted with Indian manners and customs. Dan had been called the "Spiirer" by the Indians.

Strubberg now again introduces the whole machinery of Western life into this work. The author draws the distinction between the various Indian tribes, describes in a thrilling man- ner their fights with each other, and their attacks on the whites, as well as the friendly intercourse of the Delawares with the set- tlers.

We learn to know minutely various animals of the forest and the plain. The beauties of the prairie are not omitted. The author again introduces one of his splendid descriptions of a prairie fire, with the terrified animals, fleeing before it. We re-read as it were the author's own Anicr. Jagd- iind Rcisc-Abcnteuer, only presented in a shorter form, and with an attempt to connect the great number of episodes with the threads of a story.

The daring boy, Carl Scharnhorst, is a sort of youthful Leatherstocking. It is the youth's thrilling adventures and the wealth of minute descriptions of life on the frontier of Western America that have helped to make this the most popular of all of Strubberg's works. It was read by old and young, but it has always possessed a peculiar charm for the young, and even today occupies a prominent place among the juvenile books in German literature.

See book list at end of work in twelfth edition. Fricdricli Ariiiaiid Stnibhcrg 39 Hanno- nover. Schmorl unci von Seefeld. Of this work the first volume and a half of the second takes place in Scotland and Ireland, and is taken up with a rather con- ventional romance between Edward Corblair, son of the forester of Sir Oskar Aringthur in Ireland and Agnes Walcott, the daugh- ter of a wealthy manufacturer.

Edward Corblair's poverty and position make him an impossible suitor in the eyes of Mr. Wal- cott. There is little in this part of the work that is characteristic of Strubberg unless it is his accounts of the hunt and the adven- tures on sea off the coast of Ireland. It is the account of a young Englishman who, in a similar position, had wandered to America and accom- panied several beaver trappers to the Far West.

The hunt, the dangers, the struggles with the Indians, and especially the wealth which the trappers amassed from their beaver hides had much attraction for Edward, and he resolves to emigrate to America to win a home there for Agnes and himself. Edward sails to America. The captain of the vessel is a German. Edward no sooner lands in New York than the epithet "damned foreigner" greets his ears.

He is also soon given an opportunity to see the hatred of the whites against the blacks. Im Siiden hat der Neger einen Schutz, eine Sicherstellung in seinem Herrn, wer dem Sclaven zu nahe kommt, tritt auch dessen Eigenthiimer in den Weg; hier findet der Neger nirgends Schutz, hier wird er von Jedem miss- handelt," entgegenete der Capitan. The author, as may be expected, now himself appears on the scene in a subsidiary role under the name of Armand.

He is introduced as a very young man, who has just returned from the West Indies. Strub- berg is probably thinking here of his first trip to America, about Armand and Edward Corblair, who has assumed the name Sam Patch, meet and become friends. In the third volume Strubberg introduces the rather start- ling episode of a buffalo hunt in the city of New York.

Sturton, a frontiersman, who reminds us a little of Cooper's Leather- stocking, has conceived the idea of bringing a party of Sioux In- dians and a small herd of buffalo to the East and there presenting the public with sham buffalo hunts. The buffalo chase and its disastrous result in the city of New York is described.

Armand arranges to travel West with Sturton and his Indians on their return. Edward decides to join. In this way, though first in the third volume, we are again led to the ter- ritory of the Indians. With the introduction of Western scenery and Indians, material with which the author is best acquainted, the narrative at once improves in quality and literary value. Nothing but misfortune awaits Edward Corblair in the West. On the way thither the party is attacked by a band of Pahnee In- dians.

In the attack Edward is separated from the others of the party, but, after a time of solitary wandering, he is picked up by a band of lowas. Through the Indian Utho he finally reaches a village of the Chippewas, only a journey of a few days from Lake Erie. Utho accompanies him to the head of the falls of the Niagara. It was here that Utho executed grim revenge on his faithless bride Zateka and her abductor, the white trader Toro- ney. Friedrich Armand Strubbcrg 41 frequently found interpreters in Germany, is throughout these pages well portrayed in the author's virile style.

Edward dejected in spirit takes lodging in the hotel by the falls. A great fete is about to be held. Illuminations are to take place, and a full-rigged schooner to be sent over the falls. Thou- sands of guests are expected to witness the spectacle.

Edward had walked to the foot of the falls, examined them carefully and concluded it was not an impossibility for a good swimmer to venture a leap from the head of the falls into the seething river below. He had failed in his endeavors to acquire wealth by hunt- ing the beaver.

For money he will venture to leap from the head of the falls into the river below. Flis proposal is accepted by the landlord, who assures him of at least six thousand dollars. The event is to take place during the fete. The landlord at once be- gins to advertise in true American fashion.

It is from this sensa- tional leap that the work takes its name. Edward, flushed with success, allows himself to be persuaded to do a similar feat over the Trenton Falls near the city of Utica. In the meanwhile Ag- nes, left an orphan by the death of her father, who committed suicide on account of financial ruin, comes to America to join Edward.

Hearing of the intended leap she hastens to Trenton Falls. The crowds are already gathered, the moment has come, Edward steps out upon the bridge prepared for him and leaps just as Agnes calling his name presses through the crowd to detain him. Edward disappears in the foaming mass below and is never seen again. Thus the hero whom we have followed through four volumes is whimsically disposed of.

Agnes marries the faithful friend Aringthur, thus drawing this rambling work to an unsatisfactory conclusion. The episodes with which this novel is decked out are interest- ing enough, though they are now and then somewhat exaggerated and out of taste. So for instance in Vol. Ill, p. In Vol. IV, p. The author's unhappy method of carrying forward his "Ne- beneinander" threads in the novel is nowhere better illustrated than in Vol. Here in one paragraph we find Agnes attending a Methodist camp-meeting in the vicinity of New York City.

In the very next paragraph we find ourselves without a word of warning with Edward as a beaver hunter on the frontier. Der Sprung vom Niagarafallc went through only one edi- tion. Before its publication in book form, it had appeared in the Kolnische Zeitiing in Julius Werner. This of all Strubberg's works, with the possible exception of In Siid-Carolina is the richest in purely historical material. The author, we remember, had drawn upon the incidents of the Mexican War in his Scenenaiis den Kdmpfen der Mexicaner und Nordame- rikaner and also episodically in Altc und neite Heimath.

Though Strubberg was a contem- porary of the war and in all probability served in the same for a short period, he has evidently drawn to some extent upon histori- cal works for his material. Ethe has called In Mexico a supple- ment to Sealsfield's Der Virey imd die Aristokraten, oder Mcxiko im Jahrc , and Si'idcn und Nordcn , whose time of action is In this novel the separation of the plot and its background is particularly noticeable. About half the work is taken up with narrative dealing with the Mexican War and the Americans in Mexico.

The figure of Santa Anna stands out prominently. Ethe : Der transatlantisch-cxotische Roman, etc. FricdricJi Aniiaiid Sirubbcrg 43 His ambitions, his diplomacies, his manoeuvres in battle are all related in a most attractive way, yet all this is very meagerly con- nected with the story itself. This historical setting, into which are introduced Generals Scott, Taylor and Worth, and many other officers apparently fictitious, serves but as a background for a rather bizarre romance in which the leading characters are chosen from among the Spanish aristocracy.

The historical back- ground gives the work a dignity and value rather out of har- mony with the gaudy story itself. Perhaps the author's greatest achievement in the work lies in his gorgeous descriptions of natural scenery. Strubberg's abilities are never shown to better advantage than in his descriptions in which he catches up, with the eye of the artist and the words of the poet, the very odor and atmosphere of the forests, mountains and prairies of Western America.

The following description will illustrate Vol. Von einem blassen rosa Hauch, der sie zuerst andeutete, gingen sie in ein tiefes Carmin iiber und glanzten bald darauf wie gliihend leuchtende Rubine. Es waren die eisgekron- ten Haupter der beiden Vulkane Itztaccihuatl und Popocatepetl, die in ihrer schwindelnden Aetherhohe jetzt schon, wo noch die Welt um sie her in tiefer finsterer Nacht lag, von dem nahenden Morgen gekiisst wurden. Heller, schillernder und feuriger wech- selten ihre Farben von Minute zu Minute, bis sie bei dem Errothen des ostlichen Himmels in die Schattierungen des Goldes iibergin- gen, und die ganzen Riesengestalten der beiden Berge aus der fliehenden Nacht hervortraten.

Bald farbten sich audi die Gc- birge im Westen des noch von der Nacht verhiillten Thales von Tenochtillan, und ihre Kuppen erglanzten in dem ersten Lichte des Morgens, wahrend die Sterne am Himmel erbleichten und das Feuerlicht in der Stadt Mexiko vor der Helligkeit des Tages verschwand. Their love for each other suppHes the thread of romance. The Mexican War having come to an end, we follow the German Von Colmar on his way to California, whither the recent discov- ery of gold is leading thousands of others.

The author with his usual skill portrays the emigrants wandering across the prairies on their way to California. In thrilling narrative he depicts the horrors of the prairie fire, the hardships of traveling long stretches without water, and the death of many of the caravan through blood-thirsty Indians. We are also given a picture of the infant city of San Francisco during the gold fever. At the end of the fourth volume of the first edition of this novel are found a number of poems which will be considered separately.

A second edition of In Mexico appeared in an abridged form in The poems were not added. Roman von Armand. Ernst Julius Giinther. The scene of action opens among slave owners in Kentucky. We are introduced to the old aristocratic Williams family; also to the Randolphs.

The latter, who possess less slaves and soil, have come from the State of New York and entertain Northern democratic views as to slavery, which causes the Williams's to hate them intensely. Williams has a son named Harry and Ran- dolph one named Albert. It is the purpose of the author to follow the lives of these two young men throughout many interesting adventures and to bring them together at times, thus comparing Albert's noble life with that of the scoundrel Harry Williams.

Strubberg is fond of contrasting the good and the evil and letting the former triumph over the latter. The reader, however, must feel that this could " In spite of the letters ar, with which the author characterized the names employed for his own personality as Armand, Farnwald, Franval, and Far- land, the character Lothar von Colmar cannot be identified as Strubberg's.

Friedrich Armand Striihherg 45 be accomplished in less than five volumes. The rambling, episodic character of the work, so unduly prolonged suggests that the author's interests were mercenary rather than literary. For some time Strubberg describes the illustrious career of Albert Randolph as a law student in Philadelphia, where he be- comes a poet and is celebrated all over America as the poet Al- bert. Soon we are again transported to the familiar soil of Texas, whither Albert had migrated.

The author's invariable endeavors to bring his characters to Texas are sometimes rather strained, though he usually attempts to give a reason. Of Texas he says Vol. Dies Land war Texas. To avoid this danger the slave ship was provided with two captains, the second being called the flying captain.

The real captain received his rights of sailing to and from Africa from the Brazilian marine. The flying captain re- ceived his papers from the American consul in Brazil, with per- mission to sail to Africa and return with cargo of palmoil, gold- dust, and ivory. When the ship was held up by an English scouting vessel which suspected slaves, the flying captain stepped forward, showed his papers, and all was well. In the second volume Harry is shipwrecked off the coast of Brazil.

The author, it has been observed, is very partial to ship- wrecks and introduces them at the least provocation. Harry in his wanderings arrives in Mexico in The author now 46 Friedrich Armand Struhherg brings in a mass of historical matter, which in point of time pre- cedes that in In Mexico.

Harry enters Mexico at a time when the air resounds with Vivas! In Santa Anna was elected to the presidency. IV we witness the attack of General Houston upon Santa Anna, in which the latter is taken prisoner and made to obey orders.

Santa Anna is described as a proud character, of courteous exterior, gallant toward the ladies, cruel in battle, but cowardly when captured. In the meanwhile Texas declares itself a republic. Harry Williams is accused of forgery and Strubberg intro- duces one of his thrilling court-room scenes. The author appears to have had an uncommon knowledge of the law and delights in describing lawsuits. Once we follow the noble life of Albert Randolph, then again the low career of Harry Williams. The novel illustrates the "Nebeneinander" technique, though in a rather diffuse man- ner.

One episode follows another, characters are introduced and make their exits, and new ones take their place in a most kaleido- scopic fashion. There is no reason why the work is so long any more than why it should stop at the end of the fifth volume.

A commercial interest either on the part of the author or publisher does not seem to be quite absent. This work appeared as Vols. Bibliothek deiitscher Originalromane. Jahrgang, Friedrich Fleischer. Friedrichshnrg is together with Alte und Neue Heimath, Strubberg's most important contribution to the cultural history of the Germans in America.

Strubberg has never received due recognition for having given to the world the most faithful ac- count of the German colonies, Neu-Braunfels and Friedrichs- burg. Though these accounts are in literary form, a comparison Friedrich Armand Stnihhcrg 47 with later histories will show how conscientiously the author en- deavored to give accuracy to his work.

In Friedrichshurg the author has devoted himself in particular to that colony in whose early history he himself played no unimportant role as Colonial- director. Und darum darf ich wohl hofifen, dass die nachstehenden treuen Schilderungen der damaligen Zustande und Verhaltnisse der deut- schen Colonien in Texas, so wie des Landes, der Ureinwohner desselben und deren Sitten und Gebrauchen auch jetzt noch unter meinen verehrten Lesern Interesse finden werden.

Der Verfas- ser. The scene of action opens on a clear star-lit night in Texas. Rudolph von Wildhorst, the young man around whom much of the romance in the novel clusters, is riding wildly along the road from the colony Neu-Braunfels toward the more recent German settlement Friedrichshurg. He is pursued by Indians. Now he rides down the main street, San Sabastrasse of Friedrichshurg, and then down the Schubbertstrasse to a lonely house, where he is greeted at early dawn by his love Ludwina Nimanski.

Wiklhorst, a pen- sioned Prussian officer, the fathers of the above young couple, were attracted by the alkiring advertisements sent through Ger- many by the "Mainzer Adelsverein," and emigrated with many other Germans to Texas, where the German settlements Neu- Braunfels and Friedrichsburg were founded.

It will have been apparent before now that Strubberg is an egoist. His haughty domineering spirit is evident throughout this work. In that valuable little book, Fest-Aiisgahe zuni funfsigj'dhrigen Jiibi- Idum der deutschen Kolonie Friedrichshiirg , he is char- acterized by the same traits. The inception of the "Mainzer Adelsverein," its purpose, its endeavors to acquire land in Texas, its dealings with the land sharks Fischer and Miller, its activities in founding the colonies Neu-Braunfels and Friedrichsburg are carefully outlined, though but few historical characters are actually introduced.

The suf- ferings of the emigrants on the coast of Texas before being transported to the interior, their life in the settlement, and the breaking out of disease among them, as related by Strubberg is fairly well authenticated by historical works. The German colonists, however, seem to have spelled the name with only one b. See Fest-Ausgabe. In the Fest-Ausgabe he is portrayed as a character not beyond reproach.

Franz Loeher: Gcsch. Zustlindc der Deutschen- in Amerika, ; p. Aus dem Englischcn, , p. Strubberg's statement that emigrants landed and several thousand died is exag- gerated. Fest-Ausgabe, p. Friedrich Armand Strithherg 49 Meusebach, by far the most important figure in the history of these German settlements, is not mentioned by Strubberg. Strub- berg introduces in his novel Santa Anna, an Indian chief, named after the great Mexican General, and Mopochocopie.

Proviantmeister Bickel, according to the Fest- Aiisgahe, a despicable character, is introduced as a pleasant, good- natured person. The description of the Mormons in their settle- ment near Friedrichsburg is also based on fact. The graphic description at the beginning of the second volume of the Indians gathered in Friedrichsburg to receive the presents agreed upon at the time of the peace treaty is also based on fact. No doubt reference is here made to the octagonal wooden church, built at the instigation of Schubbert Strubberg.

The author does not hesitate to draw Indians realistically. In Friedrichsburg, how- ever, some of the Indians introduced are exceedingly noble, and even from excess of emotion weep! Though Fricdrichshiirg is for us of today one of the most valuable of Strubberg's many works, it went through only one edition. As the title suggests, Strubberg has again drawn upon his never-failing source: the years spent as a frontiersman on the banks of the Leona.

Under this title are included the novel Leo- nide, which takes up two volumes and a few pages of the third, and the two novelettes, Die drei Haushdlterinnen and Bin Wilder. Ibid, p, For picture of same, see p. The form of the novel, like most of Strubberg's, is open to criticism. Strubberg never learned to skilfully weave his exposition into the body of a work. He must of necessity begin with the very beginning.

In this in- stance we are taken to the San Saba Mountains, where we learn to know Alfred Davis, whom misfortune had driven to these lonely parts where he had already for ten years been engaged as a trapper of beaver. Davis had won the affections of Kionata, the daughter of the chief of the Caddoes, who had secretly left her tribe to live with him. Kionata falls a victim to the revenge of her kinsmen and leaves Davis alone with a small daughter, Leonide.

Kionata had adhered to the religion of her fathers and extracted a solemn promise from her child to remain faithful to the same. It is the fate of Leonide and the conflict of the nature- religion of her mother with the religion of her white father within her that form the substance for this work. Leonide is one of the most delightful of Strubberg's creations.

Indeed, it has been re- marked that the author excelled in the delineation of female characters. It is a fact that Strubberg has spent his most poetic efforts in the portrayal of female personalities, and especially such who live on the border line of nature and of civilization. In this novel Strubberg again appears to be operating with the Rousseauian idea that human nature is good before it becomes defiled through the influence of human culture.

Leonide is a Rousseauian character. Leonide's father remarries and settles at a distance of a several days' ride from Strubberg's settlement on the Leona. Leonide is reared with all the advantages that a Christian home in such a remote district could offer. Ethe: Der transatlantisch-exotische Roman, etc.

Friedrich Armand Sirubberg 51 quite able to release herself from the faith of her mother. Strub- berg under the name of Armand himself plays the role of lover to the fair Indian maid. The poetry of this romance is put in fine contrast to the rough realism of a frontier village.

As a background serves an intrigue between several white men inimical to Armand and the Indian kinsmen of Leonide for the purpose of disposing of Armand and incidentally restoring Leonide to her people. On the eve of Armand's marriage with Leonide a fearful storm rages, during which the Davis home is attacked by Indians. At the moment that Leonide sinks in the arms of the Indian chief Toscalor, her maternal grandfather, both are hurled to the ground and killed by a bolt of lightning.

This sensational close is only another instance of Strubberg's weakness. Leonide's totally unmotivated death is distasteful in the highest degree, and introduced for no other apparent reason than to avoid Armand's union with Leonide. The author frequently introduces himself in his novels as the lover, but consistently avoids actual mar- riage. This, with the novelette Ein Wilder, which follows directly upon it, together with Scenen aits den Kampfen der Mexi- caner und Nordamerikaner, and the little work Der Methodisten- Geistliche, comprise Strubberg's only endeavors in the shorter novelistic form.

We can only wish he had taken this form more frequently and thus avoided those difficulties which he never mastered in the more extensive form. One trait in Strubberg's works, conspicuous by its absence, is a sense of humor. The author's seriousness is in itself almost amusing. This lack of humor may be due partly to the author's many vicissitudes in life, partly also to the age of the author.

In this novellette. Die drei Haushdlterinnen, the author has, how- ever, really proved himself capable of sketching a series of humor- ous situations. It is perhaps the most refreshing of all of Strub- berg's works. Bis in die Wildlniss and An der Indianer-Grenze. The lonely fort, once occupied by Armand and his three fellow colonists, is now forsaken and ruined. With the advance of other settlers, Armand found it necessary to alter his habits of life, and to that end built himself a more pretentious residence on the Leona, only a half-hour below the old fort which served as "ein Anhaltspunkt seiner Erinnerung an die gliicklichen Tage der Ruhe und Zufrie- denheit nach den schweren Lebensstiirmen, die ihn hierher ver- schlagen hatten.

Suky's wonderful perspiring propensities, however, soon make it quite impossible for Armand to appreciate her culinary art, and he writes a German friend in New Orleans to secure him a German housekeeper. Armand's difficulties with the three successive Ger- man housekeepers who have no sooner arrived than they are taken in marriage by the lonely, wife-seeking squatters of that remote district, form the material for this delightful little story. This is followed by Ein Wilder, a novelette of pages.

It is the romance of a stalwart Indian youth and the only daughter of a frontiersman. The daughter Lydia had been carried off by the Indians, but is restored to her people by the Indian brave Paneo, who has fallen a victim to the charms of the fair captive.

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