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A filmed production of the musical 'Miss Saigon' for its 25th anniversary, performed live at London's Prince Edward Theatre, in London's West End. Including. It has already been made known that The Last Temptation of Christ will never stage superstar who sometimes dropped in on the movies (the Macbeth.

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Producers did not shy away from real-life gures with scores of lms on the lives of Napoleon Bonaparte, George Washington, Abraham Lincoln, Jesus Christ and. But even in the energetic dawn of English movie-making, there was a foreign invasion. In , Leon Gaumont, who had established a thriving film business in. Jesus Christ Superstar, aka was third time the charm? featuring vocals from three of its stars – Alex Gaumond, Sam O'Rourke and Laura Pitt-Pulford. LORDI SUPERMONSTARS GUITAR PRO TORRENT File explorer works best default, by. Any machine you are not only to make that you. Code to functionality of with a to transfer to your.

Films which have a generally accepted release title in English-speaking countries are usually referred to under that title, with the original title in parentheses the first time the film is mentioned. For films which have no generally accepted English title the original title is used throughout, followed by an English translation in parentheses and quotation marks on first occurrence.

But in the case of some European and Asian countries, translated titles are used throughout. The Pinyin transcription has been used for Chinese names, except in the case of Taiwanese and Hong Kong artists who themselves use other transcriptions. Russian personal names and film titles have been transcribed in the 'popular' form. Every effort has been made to render accents and diacriticals correct in Scandinavian and Slavic languages, in Hungarian and in Turkish, and in the transcription of Arabic, but I cannot promise that this has been achieved in every case.

Beginning as a novelty in a handful of big cities -- New York, Paris, London, and Berlin -- the new medium quickly found its way across the world, attracting larger and larger audiences wherever it was shown and displacing other forms of entertainment as it did so. As audiences grew, so did the places where films were shown, culminating in the great 'picture palaces' of the s which rivalled theatres and opera-houses for opulence and splendour.

Meanwhile films themselves developed from being short 'attractions', only a couple of minutes long, to the feature length that has dominated the world's screens up to the present day. Although French, German, American, and British pioneers have all been credited with the 'invention' of cinema, the British and the Germans played a relatively small role in its world-wide exploitation. It was above all the French, followed by the Americans, who were the most ardent exporters of the new invention, helping to implant the cinema in China, Japan, and Latin America as well as in Russia.

In terms of artistic development it was again the French and the Americans who took the lead, though in the years preceding the First World War Italy, Denmark, and Russia also played a part. In the end it was the United States that was to prove decisive. The United States was -- and has remained -- the largest single market for films. By protecting their own market and pursuing a vigorous export policy, the Americans achieved a dominant position on the world market by the eve of the First World War.

During the war, while Europe languished, the American cinema continued to develop, pioneering new techniques as well as consolidating industrial control. Meanwhile, in the United States itself, the centre of film-making had gravitated westwards, to Hollywood, and it was films from the new Hollywood studios that flooded on to the world's film markets in the years after the First World War -- and have done so ever since.

Faced with the Hollywood onslaught, few industries proved competitive. The Italian industry, which had pioneered the feature film with lavish spectaculars like Quo vadis? Even the French cinema found itself in a precarious position. In Europe, only Germany proved industrially resilient, while in the new Soviet Union and in Japan the development of the cinema took place in conditions of commercial isolation. Hollywood took the lead artistically as well as industrially. Indeed the two aspects were inseparable.

Hollywood films appealed because they had betterconstructed narratives, their effects were more grandiose, and the star system added a new dimension to screen acting. Where Hollywood did not lead from its own resources it bought up artists and technical innovations from Europe to ensure its continued dominance over present or future competition. Murnau from Germany; Fox acquired many patents, including that of what was to become CinemaScope.

As well as a popular audience, there were also increasing audiences for films which were artistically more adventurous or which engaged with issues in the outer world. Links were formed with the artistic avant-garde and with political groupings, particularly on the left. Aesthetic movements emerged, allied to tendencies in the other arts. Sometimes these were derivative, but in the Soviet Union the cinema was in the vanguard of artistic development -- a fact which was widely recognized in the west.

By the end of the silent period, the cinema had established itself not only as an industry but as the 'seventh art'. None of this would have happened without technology, and cinema is in fact unique as an art form in being defined by its technological character. The first section of Part I of this book, ' The Early Years', therefore begins with the technical and material developments that brought the cinema into being and helped rapidly to turn it into a major art form.

In these early years this art form was quite primitive, and uncertain of its future development. It also took some time before the cinema acquired its character as a predominantly narrative and fictional medium. We have therefore divided the history of the first two decades of cinema into two: an early period proper up to about ; and a transitional period up to the emergence of the feature film shortly before the First World War , during which the cinema began to acquire that character as a form of narrative spectacle which has principally defined it ever since.

The watershed came with the First World War, which definitively sealed American hegemony, at least in the mainstream of development. The second section,'The Rise of Hollywood', looks first at Hollywood itself in the s and s and the way the Hollywood system operated as an integrated industry, controlling all aspects of cinema from production to exhibition. The international ramifications of America's rise to dominance are considered next.

By the cinema was a truly world-wide business, with films being made and shown throughout the industrialized world. But it was a business in which the levers of power were operated from afar, first in Paris and London, and then increasingly in New York and Hollywood, and it is impossible to understand the development of world cinema without recognizing the effect that control of international distribution had on nascent or established industries elsewhere.

As far as European cinema was concerned, the war provoked a crisis that was not merely economic. Not only did European exporters such as France, Britain, and Italy lose control over overseas markets, and find their own markets opened up to increasingly powerful American competition, but the whole cultural climate changed in the aftermath of war.

The triumph of Hollywood in the s was a triumph of the New World over the Old, marking the emergence of the canons of modern American mass culture not only in America but in countries as yet uncertain how to receive it. Early cinema programmes were a hotch-potch of items, mingling actualities, comic sketches, free-standing narratives, serial episodes, and the occasional trick or animated film. With the coming of the feature-length narrative as centrepiece of the programme, other types of film were relegated to a secondary position, or forced to find alternative viewing contexts.

This did not in fact hinder their development, but tended rather to reinforce their distinct identities. The making of animated cartoons became a separate branch of film-making, generally practised outside the major studios, and the same was true of serials. Of the genres emerging out of the early cinema, however, it was really only slapstick comedy that successfully developed in both short and feature format.

While Charlie Chaplin and Buster Keaton made a successful transition to features in the early s, the majority of silent comedians, including Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, built their careers in the silent period almost entirely around the short film. The section 'The Silent Film' looks at the kinds of film, like animation, comedy, and serials, which continued to thrive alongside the dramatic feature in the s, and also at the factual film or documentary, which acquired an increasing distinctiveness as the period progressed, and at the rise of avant-garde film-making parallel and sometimes counter to the mainstream.

Both documentary and the avant-garde achieved occasional commercial successes Robert Flaherty's Nanook of the North ran for several months in a cinema in Paris; and works by French 'impressionist' film-makers like Jean Epstein and Germaine Dulac also attracted substantial audiences. On the whole, however, documentary and the avant-garde were non-commercial forms, with values distinct from the mainstream and a cultural and political role that cannot be assessed in commercial terms.

Of the countries which developed and managed to sustain distinctive national cinemas in the silent period the most important were France, Germany, and the Soviet Union. Of these, the French cinema displayed the most continuity, in spite of the crisis provoked by the war and the economic uncertainties of the post-war period.

The German cinema, by contrast, relatively insignificant in the pre-war years, exploded on to the world scene with the 'expressionist' Cabinet of Dr Caligari in and throughout the Weimar period succeeded in harnessing a wide spectrum of artistic energies into new cinematic forms. Even more spectacular was the emergence of the Soviet cinema after the Revolution of The other countries whose cinemas merit an article of their own in this Part are: Britain, which had an interesting but relatively undistinguished history in the silent period; Italy, which had a brief moment of international fame just before the war; the Scandinavian countries, mainly Denmark and Sweden, which played a role in the development of silent cinema quite out of proportion to their small populations; and Japan, where a cinema developed based on traditional theatrical and other art forms and only gradually adapted to western influence.

Space is also given to the unique phenomenon of the transnational Yiddish cinema, which flourished in eastern and central Europe in the inter-war years. For most of these articles the period covered is from the earliest days up to the introduction of synchronized sound at the end of the s.

For the German cinema, however, the cut-off point is the Nazi takeover in For similar reasons the story of Yiddish cinema is carried up to , when it was brutally terminated by the Holocaust. Silent cinema is strictly speaking a misnomer, for although films themselves were silent, the cinema was not.

The showing of early films, particularly non-fiction, was often accompanied by a lecturer or barker, and in Japan there developed the remarkable institution of the benshi, who both commented on the action and spoke the dialogue. It was largely because of the benshi that silent film survived in Japan long after other countries had converted to sound. Music was an integral part of the silent film experience. The final section of this part looks first at the extraordinary development of film music and its role in shaping the audience's perception, before proceeding to an overview of what the silent cinema was like in its heyday in the s.

The first experiments in transmitting images by a television-type device are in fact as old as the cinema: Adriano de Paiva published his first studies on the subject in , and Georges Rignoux seems to have achieved an actual transmission in Meanwhile certain 'pre-cinema' techniques continued to be used in conjunction with cinema proper during the years around when the cinema was establishing itself as a new mass medium of entertainment and instruction, and lantern slides with movement effects continued for a long time to be shown in close conjunction with film screenings.

Magic lantern, film, and television, therefore, do not constitute three separate universes and fields of study , but belong together as part of a single process of evolution. It is none the less possible to distinguish them, not only technologically and in terms of the way they were diffused, but also chronologically. The magic lantern show gradually gives way to the film show at the beginning of the twentieth century, while television emerges fully only in the second half of the century.

In this succession, what distinguishes cinema is on the one hand its technological base -- photographic images projected in quick succession giving the illusion of continuity -- and on the other hand its use prevailingly as large-scale public entertainment. Each image is held briefly in front of the light and then rapidly replaced with the next one.

If the procedure is rapid and smooth enough, and the images similar enough to each other, discontinuous images are then perceived as continuous and an illusion of movement is created. The perceptual process involved was known about in the nineteenth century, and given the name persistence of vision, since the explanation was thought to lie in the persistence of the image on the retina of the eye for long enough to make perception of each image merge into the perception of the next one.

This explanation is no longer regarded as adequate, and modern psychology prefers to see the question in terms of brain functions rather than of the eye alone. But the original hypothesis was sufficiently fertile to lead to a number of experiments in the s and s aimed at reproducing the so-called persistence of vision effect with sequential photographs. The purposes of these experiments were various. They were both scientific and commercial, aimed at analysing movement and at reproducing it.

In terms of the emergence of cinema the most important were those which set out to reproduce movement naturally, by taking pictures at a certain speed a minimum of ten or twelve per second and generally higher and showing them at the same speed. In fact throughout the silent period the correspondence between camera speed and projection was rarely perfect.

A projection norm of around 16 pictures 'frames' per second seems to have been the most common well into the s, but practices differed considerably and it was always possible for camera speeds to be made deliberately slower or faster to produce effects of speeded-up or slowed-down motion when the film was projected.

It was only with the coming of synchronized sound-tracks, which had to be played at a constant speed, that a norm of 24 frames per second f. First of all, however, a mechanism had to be created which would enable the pictures to be exposed in the camera in quick succession and projected the same way.

A roll of photographic film had to be placed in the camera and alternately held very still while the picture was exposed and moved down very fast to get on to the next picture, and the same sequence had to be followed when the film was shown. Moving the film and then stopping it so frequently put considerable strain on the film itself -- a problem which was more severe in the projector than in the camera, since the negative was exposed only once whereas the print would be shown repeatedly.

The problem of intermittent motion, as it is called, exercised the minds of many of the pioneers of cinema, and was solved only by the introduction of a small loop in the threading of the film where it passed the gate in front of the lens see inset. FILM STOCK The moving image as a form of collective entertainment -what we call 'cinema' -- developed and spread in the form of photographic images printed on a flexible and semitransparent celluloid base, cut into strips 35 mm.

This material -- 'film' -- was devised by Henry M. Reichenbach for George Eastman in , on the basis of inventions variously attributed to the brothers J. Hyatt , to Hannibal Goodwin , and to Reichenbach himself. The basic components of the photographic film used since the end of the nineteenth century have remained unchanged over the years. They are: a transparent base, or support; a very fine layer of adhesive substrate made of gelatine; and a light-sensitive emulsion which makes the film opaque on one side.

The base of the great majority of 35 mm. From that date onwards the nitrate base has been replaced by one of cellulose acetate, which is far less flammable, or increasingly by polyester. From early times, however, various forms of 'safety' film were tried out, at first using cellulose diacetate invented by Eichengrun and Becker as early as , or by coating the nitrate in non-flammable substances.

The first known examples of these procedures date back to Safety film became the norm for non-professional use after the First World War. The black and white negative film used up to the mids was so-called orthochromatic. It was sensitive to ultraviolet, violet, and blue light, and rather less sensitive to green and yellow. Red light did not affect the silver bromide emulsion at all.

To prevent parts of the scene from appearing on the screen only in the form of indistinct dark blobs, early cinematographers had to practise a constant control of colour values on the set. Certain colours had to be removed entirely from sets and costumes. Actresses avoided red lipstick, and interior scenes were shot against sets painted in various shades of grey.

A new kind of emulsion called panchromatic was devised for Gaumont by the Eastman Kodak Company in In just over a decade it became the preferred stock for all the major production companies. It was less light-sensitive in absolute terms than orthochrome, which meant that enhanced systems of studio lighting had to be developed. But it was far better balanced and allowed for the reproduction of a wider range of greys. In the early days, however, celluloid film was not the only material tried out in the showing of motion pictures.

Of alternative methods the best known was the Mutoscope. This consisted of a cylinder to which were attached several hundred paper rectangles about 70 mm. These paper rectangles contained photographs which, if watched in rapid sequence through a viewer, gave the impression of continuous movement. There were even attempts to produce films on glass: the Kammatograph used a disc with a diameter of 30 cm. There were experiments involving the use of translucent metal with a photographic emulsion on it which could be projected by reflection, and films with a surface in relief which could be passed under the fingers of blind people, on a principle similar to Braille.

The Kinetoscope was such a commercial success that subsequent machines for reproducing images in movement adopted 35 mm. This practice had the support of the Eastman Company, whose photographic film was 70 mm. It is also due to the mechanical structure of the Kinetoscope that 35 mm. Other pioneers at the end of the nineteenth century used a different pattern.

But it was the Edison method which was soon adopted as standard, and remains so today. It was the Edison company too who set the standard size and shape of the 35 mm. Although these were to become the standards, there were many experiments with other gauges of film stock, both in the early period and later. In the Prestwich Company produced a 60 mm. The Veriscope Company in America introduced a 63 mm. All these systems encountered technical problems, particularly in projection.

Though some further experiments took place towards the end of the silent period, the use of wide gauges such as 65 and 70 mm. More important than any attempts to expand the image, however, were those aimed at reducing it and producing equipment suitable for non-professional users. In the French company Gaumont began marketing its 'Chrono de Poche', a portable camera which used 15 mm.

Two years later the Warwick Trading Company in England introduced a An alternative to celluloid film, the Kammatograph c. Kodak launched their 16 mm. For many years 9. Filoteo Alberini, unidentified 70 mm. Frame enlargement from a negative in the film collection at George Eastman House, Rochester, NY There were also more exotic formats, using film divided into parallel rows which could be exposed in succession.

Of these only Edison's Home Kinetoscope, using 22 mm. COLOUR As early as , copies of films which had been handcoloured frame by frame with very delicate brushes were available. It was very difficult, however, to ensure that the colour occupied a precise area of the frame. This method, also known as 'au pochoir' in French and stencil in English, allowed for the application of half a dozen different tonalities. A far less expensive method was to give the film a uniform colour for each frame or sequence in order to reinforce the figurative effect or dramatic impact.

Basically there were three ways of doing this. There was tinting, which was achieved either by applying a coloured glaze to the base, or by dipping the film in a solution of coloured dyes, or by using stock which was already coloured.

Then there was toning, in which the silver in the emulsion was replaced with a coloured metallic salt, without affecting the gelatine on the film. And finally there was mordanting, a variety of toning in which the photographic emulsion was treated with a non-soluble silver salt capable of fixing an organic colouring agent. Tinting, toning, mordanting, and mechanical colouring could be combined, thus multiplying the creative possibilities of each technique.

A particularly fascinating variation on tinting technique is provided by the Handschiegl Process also known as the Wyckoff-DeMille Process, , which was an elaborate system derived from the techniques of lithography. The first attempts by Frederick Marshall Lee and Edward Raymond Turner to realize colour films using the superimposition of red, green, and blue images date back to But it was only in that George Albert Smith achieved a commercially viable result with his Kinemacolor.

In front of the camera Smith placed a semi-transparent disc divided into two sectors: red and blue-green. The film was then projected with the same filters at a speed of 32 frames per second, and the two primary colours were thus 'merged' in an image which showed only slight chromatic variations but produced an undeniable overall effect. Smith's invention was widely imitated and developed into three-colour systems by Gaumont in and the German Agfa Company in The first actual colour-sensitive emulsion was invented by Eastman Kodak around and shortly afterwards marketed under the trademark Kodachrome.

This was still only a two-colour system, but it was the first stage in a series of remarkable developments. Around the same time a company founded by Herbert T. Kalmus, W. Burton Westcott, and Daniel Frost Comstock -- the Technicolor Motion Picture Corporation -- began experimenting with a system based on the additive synthesis of two colours; disappointed by the results thus obtained, the three changed tack in and began exploring still with two colours only the possibility of using the principle of subtractive synthesis first elaborated by Duclos du Hauron in This worked by combining images each of which had filtered out light of a particular colour.

When the images were combined, the colour balance was restored. Using the subtractive principle the Technicolor team were ready within three years to present a colour film -- The Toll of the Sea Chester M. Franklin, Metro Pictures, -created on two negatives and consisting of two sets of positive images with separate colours printed back to back. The late s and early s saw many other inventions in the field of colour, but by the end of the decade it was clear that Kalmus and his associates were way ahead of the field, and it was their system that was to prevail for professional film-making throughout the s and s.

Meanwhile the great majority of films during the silent period continued to be produced using one or other of the methods of colouring the print described above. Literally black and white films were in the minority, generally those made by smaller companies or comic shorts. Early film shows had lecturers who gave a commentary on the images going past on the screen, explaining their content and meaning to the audience. In a number of non-western countries this practice continued long beyond the early period.

In Japan, where silent cinema remained the rule well into the s, there developed the art of the benshi, who provided gestures and an original text to accompany the image. Along with speech came music. This was at first improvised on the piano, then adapted from the current popular repertoire, and then came to be specially commissioned. On big occasions this music would be performed by orchestras, choirs, and opera singers, while a small band or just a pianist would play in less luxurious establishlnents.

Exhibitors who could not afford the performance of original music had two choices. The first was to equip a pianist, organist, or small band with a musical score, generally consisting of selections of popular tunes and classics in the public domain 'cue sheets' , which provided themes suitable to accompany different episodes of the film.

Music was sometimes accompanied by noise effects. These were usually obtained by performers equipped with a wide array of objects reproducing natural and artificial sounds. But the same effects could be produced by machines, of which a particularly famous and elaborate example was the one in use at the Gaumont Hippodrome cinema in Paris.

From the beginning, however, the pioneers of the moving image had more grandiose ambitions. As early as April , Edison put forward a system for synchronizing his twin inventions of phonograph and Kinetoscope. All such systems, however, were hampered by the lack of amplification to project the sound in large auditoriums.

The alternative to synchronizing films and discs was to print the sound directly on the film. An early example of split-screen technique in an unidentified documentary on Venice. Title on print Santa Lucia, c. De Forest's Phonofilm involved the use of a photoelectric cell to read a sound-track printed on the same strip of film as the image.

In the Hollywood studio Warner Bros. This was a sound-ondisc system, linking the projector to large discs, 16 in. The Vitaphone system was used again the following year for the first 'talking' picture, The Jazz Singer with Al Jolson, and continued in being for a few more years.

Meanwhile a rival studio, Fox, had bought up the rights on the TriErgon and Photophone patents, using them to add sound to films that had already been shot. Fox's Movietone soundon-film system proved far more practical than Vitaphone, and became the basis for the generalized introduction of synchronized sound in the early s. Oust under 1 in.

The spacing of the frames meant each foot of film contained 16 frames. This too has remained unaltered, and continues to be the standard today. When projected, the ratio between width and height worked out at between 1. With the coming of sound the frame size was altered slightly to accommodate the sound-track, but the projection ratio remained roughly the same -- at approximately -- until the arrival of widescreen processes in the s.

In the silent and early sound periods there were a few attempts to change the size and shape of the projected picture. The sides of the frame were occasionally masked out, to produce a square picture, as in the case of Murnau's Tabu This was an early forerunner of CinemaScope and the other anamorphic systems which came into commercial use in the s.

Other experiments included Magnascope , which used a wide-angle projector lens to fill a large screen, and devices for linking multiple projectors together. As early as Raoul Grimoin-Sanson attempted to hitch up ten 70 mm. Occasional attempts were made to devise alternative spatial arrangements. In , for example, the German Messter Company experimented with showing its 'Alabastra' colour films through a complex system of mirrors on to a thin veiled screen from a projection booth placed under the theatre floor.

It was also possible to project on to the screen from behind, but this process known as back-projection took up a lot of space and has rarely been used for public presentation. It came into use in the sound period as a form of special effect during film-making allowing actors to perform in front of a previously photographed landscape background.

Throughout the silent years projectors, whether handcranked or electrically powered, all ran at variable speeds, enabling the operator to adjust the speed of the projector to that of the camera. For its part, camera speed varied according to a number of factors: the amount of available light during shooting, the sensitivity of the film stock, and the nature of the action being recorded.

To keep the movements of the characters on the screen 'natural', projectionists in the years before showed films at various speeds, most often between 14 and 18 frames per second. The flicker effect that these relatively slow speeds tended to produce was eliminated by the introduction early in the century of a three-bladed shutter which opened and closed three times during the showing of each frame.

The average speed of projection increased as time went on, and by the end of the period it had regularly reached a norm of 24 frames per second, which became the standard for sound film. Faster and slower speeds were occasionally used for colour film experiments or in some amateur equipment. The quality of projection was greatly affected by the type of light source being used. Before electric arc lights became standard, the usual method of producing light for the projector was to heat a piece of lime or a similar substance until it glowed white hot.

The efficacy of this method known as 'limelight' was very dependent on the nature and quality of the fuel used to heat the lime. The usual fuels were a mixture of coal-gas and oxygen or of ether and oxygen. Acetylene was also tried, but soon abandoned as it produced a weak light and gave off a disagreeable smell.

With the rapid growth of the film business, films soon came to be printed in large numbers. On the other hand many early American films listed in distributors' catalogues seem to have sold not more than a couple of copies, and in some cases it may be that none at all were printed, due to lack of demand.

Since the cinema was from the outset an international business, films had to be shipped from one country to another, often in different versions. Films might be recorded on two side-by-side cameras simultaneously, producing two different negatives. Intertitles would be shot in different languages, and shipped with the prints or a duplicate negative of the film to a foreign distributor. Sometimes only one frame of each title would be provided, to be expanded to full length when copies were made, and some films have survived with only these 'flash titles' or with no titles at all.

Sometimes different endings were produced to suit the tastes of the public in various parts of the world. In eastern Europe for example, there was a taste for the 'Russian' or tragic ending in preference to the 'happy end' expected by audiences in America. It was also common to issue coloured prints of a film for show in luxury theatres and cheaper black and white ones for more modest locales. Finally, censorship, both national and local, often imposed cuts or other changes in films at the time of release, and many American films in particular have survived in different forms as a result of the varied censorship practices of state or city censorship boards.

DECAY In the early years of the cinema films were looked on as essentially ephemeral and little attempt was made to preserve them once they reached the end of their commercial life. By that time, however, many films had been irretrievably lost and many others dispersed. The world's archives have now collected together some 30, prints of silent films, but the lack of resources for cataloguing them means that it is not known how many of these are duplicate prints of the same version, or, in the case of what appear to be duplicates, whether there are significant differences between versions of films with the same title.

While the number of films collected continues to rise, the number of surviving films is still probably less than 20 per cent of those thought to have been made. Meanwhile, even as the number of rediscovered films rises, a further problem is created by the perishable nature of the nitrate base on which the vast majority of silent and early sound films were printed.

For not only is cellulose nitrate highly flammable, which may in some cases lead to spontaneous combustion: it is also liable to decay and in the course of decay it destroys the emulsion which bears the image. Even in the best conservation conditions that is to say at very low temperatures and the correct level of humidity , the nitrate base begins to decompose from the moment it is produced.

In the course of the process the film emits various gases, and in particular nitrous anhydride, which, combined with air and with the water in the gelatine, produces nitrous and nitric acids. These acids corrode the silver salts of the emulsion, thereby destroying the image along with its support, until eventually the whole film is dissolved.

For this reason film archives are engaged in a struggle to prolong its life until such time as the image can be transferred to a different support. Unfortunately the cellulose acetate base on to which the transfer is made is itself liable to eventual decay unless kept under ideal atmospheric conditions.

Even so, it is far more stable than nitrate and infinitely preferable to magnetic video tape, which is not only perishable but is unsuitable for reproducing the character of the original film. It may be that some time in the future it will prove possible to preserve film images digitally, but this has not yet been demonstrated to be a practical possibility. The aim of restoration is to reproduce the moving image in a form as close as possible to that in which it was originally shown.

But all copies that are made are necessarily imperfect. For a start, they have had to be duplicated from one base on to another, with an inevitable loss of some of the original quality. It is also extremely difficult to reproduce colour techniques such as tinting and toning, even if the film is copied on to colour stock, which, given the expense, is far from being universal practice. Many films which were originally coloured are now only seen, if at all, in black and white form.

To appreciate a silent film in the form in which it was originally seen by audiences, it is necessary to have the rare good luck of seeing an original nitrate print increasingly difficult because of modern fire regulations , and even then it has to be recognized that each copy of a film has its own unique history and every showing will vary according to which print is being shown and under what conditions. Different projection, different music, the likely absence of an accompanying live show or light effects, mean that the modern showing of silent films offers only a rough approximation of what silent film screening was like for audiences at the time.

Hampton, Benjamin B. Magliozzi, Ronald S. Rathbun, John B. The Loop and the Maltese Cross The cinema did not really come into being until films could be projected. Dickson in and marketed from , cannot properly be considered cinema, since it consisted only of a peepshow device through which short films could be viewed by one person at a time.

In the Kinetoscope the film ran continuously past a small shutter, as in Victorial optical toys such as the Zoetrope, and the flow of light was constructed by the viewer's perceptual apparatus to form an image of objects in motion - a form of viewing only possible if the spectator was peering directly into the device.

By , however, a number of inventors were ready with devices in which the film ran intermittently both in the camera and in a projector, so that an image was held stably in front of the spectator before passing on to the next one. For longer films, however, or for the regular projection of a sequence of short films, a method had to be found to ease the passage of the film in front of the gate.

Paul in Britain, projectors had been developed in which a loop of film was formed at the gate between two continuouslyrunning sprocket wheels, and only the piece of film held in the loop was given intermittent motion, thus protecting the film from undue strain. What then attracted attention was how to find a smoother way of turning the continuous motion of the camera projector motor into intermittent motion as the film passed the gate. The solution, again pioneered by R.

Paul, took the form of a device known as the Maltese cross. A pin attached to a cam engaged with the little slots between the arms of the cross as it rotated, and each time it did so the film was drawn forward one frame. The method, perfected around , remains in use for 35 mm. Projection to this day. What in had been a mere novelty had by become an established industry. The earliest films were little more than moving snapshots, barely one minute in length and often consisting of just a single shot.

By , they were regularly five to ten minutes long and employed changes of scene and camera position to tell a story or illustrate a theme. Then, in the early s, with the arrival of the first 'feature-length' films, there gradually emerged a new set of conventions for handling complex narratives. By this time too, the making and showing of films had itself become a large-scale business. No longer was the film show a curiosity sandwiched into a variety of other spectacles, from singing or circus acts to magic lantern shows.

Instead specialist venues had been created, exclusively devoted to the exhibition of films, and supplied by a number of large production and distribution companies, based in major cities, who first sold and then increasingly rented films to exhibitors all over the world. In the course of the s the single most important centre of supply ceased to be Paris, London, or New York, and became Los Angeles -- Hollywood.

The cinema of this period, from the mid- s to the mids, is sometimesreferred to as 'pre-Hollywood' cinema, attesting to the growing hegemony of the California-based American industry after the First World War. It has also been described as pre-classical, in recognition of the role that a consolidated set of 'classical' narrative conventions was to play in the world cinema from the s onwards.

These terms need to be used with caution, as they can imply that the cinema of the early years was only there as a precursor of Hollywood and the classical style which followed. In fact the styles of filmmaking prevalent in the early years were never entirely displaced by Hollywood or classical modes, even in America, and many cinemas went on being pre- or at any rate non- Hollywood in their practices for many years to come.

But it remains true that much of the development that took place in the years from or can be seen as laying the foundation for what was to become the Hollywood system, in both formal and industrial terms. For the purposes of this book, therefore, we have divided the period into two.

The first half, from the beginnings up to about , we have simply called early cinema, while the second half, from to the mids, we have designated transitional since it forms a bridge between the distinctive modes of early cinema and those which came later. Broadly speaking, the early cinema is distinguished by the use of fairly direct presentational modes, and draws heavily on existing conventions of photography and theatre.

It is only in the transitional period that specifically cinematic conventions really start to develop, and the cinema acquires the means of creating its distinctive forms of narrative illusion. INDUSTRY Various nations lay claim to the invention of moving pictures, but the cinema, like so many other technological innovations, has no precise originating moment and owes its birth to no particular country and no particular person.

In fact, one can trace the origins of cinema to such diverse sources as sixteenth-century Italian experiments with the camera obscura, various early nineteenth-century optical toys, and a host of practices of visual representation such as dioramas and panoramas. None of these men can be called the primary originator of the film medium, however, since only a favourable conjunction of technical circumstances made such an 'invention' possible at this particular moment: improvements in photographic development; the invention of celluloid, the first medium both durable and flexible enough to loop through a projector; and the application of precision engineering and instruments to projector design.

In spite of the internationalization of both film style and technology, the United States and a few European countries retained hegemony over film production, distribution, and exhibition. Initially, French film producers were arguably the most important, if not in terms of stylistic innovation, an area in which they competed with the British and the Americans, then certainly in terms of market dominance at home and internationally.

Precisely dating the first exhibition of moving pictures depends upon whether 'exhibition' means in private, publicly for a paying audience, seen in a Kinetoscope, or projected on a screen. Its relative lightness 16 lb. It became one of the most important French film producers during the early period, and was primarily responsible for the French dominance of the early cinema market. Despite this initial French dominance, however, various American studios, primary among them the Edison Manufacturing Company, the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company of America after simply the Biograph Company , and the Vitagraph Company of America all founded in the late s had already created a solid basis for their country's future domination of world cinema.

The 'invention' of the moving picture is often associated with the name of Thomas Alva Edison, but, in accordance with contemporary industrial practices, Edison's moving picture machines were actually produced by a team of technicians working at his laboratories in West Orange, New Jersey, supervised by the Englishman William Kennedy Laurie Dickson. Dickson and his associates began working on moving pictures in and by had built the Kinetograph, a workable but bulky camera, and the Kinetoscope, a peep-show-like viewing machine in which a continuous strip of film between 40 and 50 feet long ran between an electric lamp and a shutter.

They also developed and built the first motion picture studio, necessitated by the Kinetograph's size, weight, and relative immobility. This was a shack whose resemblance to a police van caused it to be popularly dubbed the 'Black Maria'. To this primitive studio came the earliest American film actors, mainly vaudeville performers who travelled to West Orange from nearby New York City to have their moving pictures taken.

These pictures lasted anywhere from fifteen seconds to one minute and simply reproduced the various performers' stage acts with, for example, Little Egypt, the famous belly-dancer, dancing, or Sandow the Strongman posing. His company was the first to market a commercially viable moving picture machine, albeit one designed for individual viewers rather than mass audiences. Controlling the rights to the Kinetograph and Kinetoscope, Edison immediately embarked upon plans for commercial exploitation, entering into business agreements that led to the establishment of Kinetoscope parlours around the country.

The first Kinetoscope parlour, a rented store-front with room for ten of the viewing machines each showing a different film, opened in New York City in April The new technical marvel received a promotional boost when the popular boxing champion Gentleman Jim Corbett went six rounds against Pete Courtney at the Black Maria. The resulting film gained national publicity for Edison's machine, as well as drawing the rapt attention of female viewers, who reportedly formed lines at the Kinetoscope parlours to sneak a peek at the scantily clad Gentleman Jim.

Soon other Kinetoscope parlours opened and the machines also became a featured attraction at summer amusement parks. Until the spring of the Edison Company devoted itself to shooting films for the Kinetoscope, but, as the novelty of the Kinetoscope parlours wore off and sales of the machines fell off, Thomas Edison began to rethink his commitment to individually oriented exhibition.

He acquired the patents to a projector whose key mechanism had been designed by Thomas Armat and C. Francis Jenkins, who had lacked the capital for the commercial exploitation of their invention. These brief films, 40 feet in length and lasting twenty seconds, were spliced end to end to form a loop, enabling each film to be repeated up to half a dozen times. The sheer novelty of moving pictures, rather than their content or a story, was the attraction for the first film audiences.

Within a year there were several hundred Vitascopes giving shows in various locations throughout the United States. In these early years Edison had two chief domestic rivals. In two former vaudevillians, James Stuart Blackton and Albert Smith, founded the Vitagraph Company of America initially to make films for exhibition in conjunction with their own vaudeville acts.

In that same year the outbreak of the Spanish-American War markedly increased the popularity of the new moving pictures, which were able to bring the war home more vividly than the penny press and the popular illustrated weeklies. Blackton and Smith immediately took advantage of the situation, shooting films on their New York City rooftop studio that purported to show events taking place in Cuba. So successful did this venture prove that by the partners issued their first catalogue offering films for sale to other exhibitors, thus establishing Vitagraph as one of the primary American film producers.

The third important American studio of the time, the American Mutoscope and Biograph Company, now primarily known for employing D. Griffith between and , was formed in to produce flipcards for Mutoscope machines. When W. Dickson left Edison to join Biograph, the company used his expertise to patent a projector to compete with the Vitascope.

In Biograph also began to produce films but the Edison Company effectively removed them from the market by entangling them in legal disputes that remained unresolved until At the turn of the century, Britain was the third important film-producing country. The Edison Kinetoscope was first seen there in October , but, because of Edison's uncharacteristic failure to patent the device abroad, the Englishman R.

Paul legally copied the non-protected viewing machine and installed fifteen Kinetoscopes at the exhibition hall at Earl's Court in London. When Edison belatedly sought to protect his interests by cutting off the supply of films, Paul responded by going into production for himself. In , in conjunction with Birt Acres, who supplied the necessary technical expertise, Paul opened the first British film studio, in north London. Another important early British film-maker, Cecil Hepworth, built a studio in his London back garden in By Brighton had also become an important centre for British filmmaking with two of the key members of the so-called 'Brighton school', George Albert Smith and James Williamson, each operating a studio.

At this time, production, distribution, and exhibition practices differed markedly from those that were to emerge during the transitional period; the film industry had not yet attained the specialization and division of labour characteristic of large-scale capitalist enterprises. The Ukrainian Language Program aims to inform and entertain the diverse commu. Es handelt sich formal um einen pikaresk angelegten Roman.

Die Episodenhaftigkeit ist hier als relevantes Merkmal zu nennen. Featuring some of Miami's finest musical talents, this album elevates the familiar sounds of today's mainstream latin music to a new level. Latin Pop Rock. We review the games in the series, and discuss a multitude of topics, from sex in the Final Fantasy universe to the people behind the games. Be sure to check out our Youtube and Facebook.

The Official Podcast of Ultima Gaming. Ultima Thule weaves a mix of ambient, trance, drone and chillout electronica, spacemusic, ancient, mediaeval and neoclassical creations, traditional and world music, soundtracks, cool jazz and impressionist soundworks into an exquisite, chatter-free minute musical narrative. Ambient and atmospheric music from across the ages and around the world.

He finally gets the opportunity when he is given a provisional assignment with Bureau of Investigation, Section G. But will he be able to complete his assignment and find the elusive Tommy Paine? Plus Nerd News, Movie Reviews and much more!

Twitter : ultim8facepalm. Web : ultimatefacepalm. Delicious recipes, restaurants, and the best from our kitchen to yours. The guys do not discriminate. If it is fighting and it is sanctioned, you can rest assured one of them is watching it. UFMMA gets full press access to many events and digs for interviews with the major players.

Join award winning American History teacher, Professor Wilson as he discusses current issues and the constitution. Join your host, Felice Gerwitz as she interviews each and learns their motivation for creating their business, their podcast topic and how this impacts[ His style is instantly recognisable from the uplifting beats to euphoric party anthems which would be right at home on the White Isle. Please contact Damien Diggler damiendiggler on Twitter or damiendiggler hotmail.

Join in on the vibe!!!! It's strictly Ultimate House Tekkers!!!!! Follow me on Twitter www. Add me on facebook. The only one of it's kind, the show is dedicated to highlighting businesses that make up the grooming and beauty industry. Join us for interactive product reviews, celebrity interviews, brand founder interviews and other content that make up this industry.

Join us for great product give aways too! You're not going to want to miss this! Catch up with me on my blog www. Until we connect again, have a beautiful and successful week! Join us for interactive product reviews, celebrity interviews, brand founder intervie. Archer, Sherri Semine, S. Ravynheart s. Podcast about awesome Urban Fantasy books, TV shows, movies and more!

Sometimes it was blazing, brilliant and hot. Other times it was oddly dim, cool, shedding little warmth on its many planets. Gresth Gkae, leader of the Mirans, was seeking a better star, one to which his ""people"" could migrate.

That star had to be steady, reliable, with a good planetary system. And in his astronomical searching, he found Sol. With hundreds of ships, each larger than whole Terrestrial spaceports, and traveling faster than the speed of light, the Mirans set out to move in to Solar regions and take over.

Introduction by John W. Campbell " "The star Mira was unpredictably variable. Campbell ". I will only play this at your event should you request it. This more catered towards my nightclub clientele and fans of my work in the night club scene.

We hope you enjoy our show. This more catered towards my nightclub clientele. The Ultimate Workout is an annual, two-week mission trip for high school age teens. Young people come together from all over the world and find new friends and work together on construction projects, medical clinics and with many other local ministries. Honestly though you can somehow spam with every character.

I Will also be bringing you throughout story mode,survival and tournaments. Mike noreply blogger. Ultimate Truth Audiocast is an all out any time audio podcast from Keith Miller on anything his crazy bald head comes up with.

Listen to hundreds of mixes! This is the selection's choice of electronic music producers by Viva la Electronica. Viva la Electronica. Residents : Marlotoff B. Simpson SDZ. Find Us On These Sites :. The UK's amazingest movie blog finally hits the airwaves. The Music Spreaker's NO.

Together, we'll make the difference! Open up your artwork window in itunes or touch the artwork on your iphone or ipod touch for the interactive features and release information on all the tracks featured in this podcast. For more information visit facebook. Ultra Retro Radio Guide. Originally established in June as ""ultrafunk"", we are a club night bringing together the friendliest people and the finest music to create a superb party atmosphere and a night to remember.

Our passion is the music, and we ende". Ultrajando a cultura Pop! Fomitchev-Zamilov max ultramax-music. Order your DVD today at www. The newest upfront music from around the globe. The text is dense and difficult, but perfectly suited to an oral reading, filled with language tricks, puns and jokes, stream of consciousness, and bawdiness.

Still one of the most radical novels of the 20th Century, James Joyce's Ulysses is considered to have ushered in the era of the modern novel. Loosely based on Homer's Odyssey, the book follows Leopold Bloom and a number of other characters through an ordinary day, twenty four hours, in Dublin, on June 16, Cosmo Ulysses Cosmo spam promodeejay. This short biography is only pages in a little pamphlet size. The author is famous for his stories of the Old West, but he also wrote a substantial body of nonfiction literature.

And some extraordinarily squeaky office chairs. A podcast about code and the armchair psychology of software development teamwork. Mixed by DJ and founder Richie Hartness and available on deepvibes. As coisas acontecem no momento certinho. Muita paz a todos. Saulo Calderon" "". Listen to it on your way to work. Not bad going. To catch up with the other nominees check out choicefm. Reflexiones personales sobre los estudios de Humanidades. A series of conversations about issues of importance to The United Methodist Church.

Every month, the latest and best of techno and tech-house. The piece is an intense sensory expedition that takes the audience through nine chapters comprising a drama drawing on the dynamic arc of a feature film, but consisting of highly abstract sounds and images. Soundscapes modulate rhythmically from intense and subtle to assertive and thundering, always using the surround audio environment to its full potential. In synchronicity with the sound, the images move through an array of contrasting worlds ranging from cold organic black and white synthetic animation to boldly colorful angular compositions with their roots in imagery captured in the old industrial harbor of Paap's hometown of Rotterdam.

Together the exploration of sound and image build upon each other creating and examining detailed worlds of composition and form with a deep embedded desire to forge a progressive approach to the worlds of sound and cinema. More info www. The Reminder Series - Ummah Films. With influences ranging from Frank Zappa to The Beatles to Miles Davis to Tortoise and the ability to invoke visions of each band in one broad musical stroke, UM will surprise you at every musical turn.

Dedicated to capturing the live experience of Umphrey's McGee. With influences ranging from Frank Zappa to The Beatles to Miles Davis to Tortoise and the ability to invoke visions of each in one broad musical stroke, surprising you at every musical turn. All request and in stereo! We are completely self and listener funded and present everything commercial free.

Your generosity and donations help keep us on the air. Please use the paypal link below to help keep us going. We thank you! Also Leute lasst mir Kommentare da. Sonst stell ich das ganz hier ein. MFG Michael". Professional journalists contribute material gathered from around the globe. Dies ist ein Projekt was Mirco und meine Wenigkeit Chris schon lange Angedacht haben und wir freuen uns sehr darauf dies endlich zu realisieren. Was machst du?

Beim Umweltschutz steckt der Teufel im Detail. Ein Download-Angebot des Bayerischen Rundfunks. Il programma gioca con il potere irraggiungibile, usando il linguaggio di tutti, spogliandolo dei propri abiti, per far vivere, a potenti e non, un giorno da pecora!

Un talk show senza livrea, non paludato, dal ritmo incessante, senza regole. There may or may not be some special guests and you might hear the odd song or three. Uncomfortably sit back and have an informal giggle to an unorganised, unhinged podcast from 2 slightly unbalancd aussie comics. Un jour, un artiste. In chiusura di ogni puntata ""il confettino"" : il libro della settimana da leggere con i ragazzi. Una volta al mese Carrubba propone, inoltre, le ""interviste impossibili"" : i protagonisti di grandi opere e gli autori del passato prendono vita tramite la voce di personaggi caratterialmente affini.

Dalle Podcast sobre cosas de Nueva York, sus habitantes y costumbres, vistas desde un punto de vista personal, subjetivo y no siempre riguroso. Hi havia una vegada…" Hi havia una vegada Un monde d'Info. Sobre todo con su fauna.

Contacto : unpodcastdecoches gmail. Un rien Mabille. Et tous les jours ne ratez pas le tirage au sort du Rocher Gagnant! Le talk qui met les pieds dans le plat! Estamos transmitiendo para el mundo desde el mundo, una radio pensada para achicar distancias y pensarnos un poco mejor. No dejes de enviarnos mails y contactarnos en las transmisiones.

Hacenos un mimo mientras nosotros te mostramos como somos. Un tir dans la Lucarne. Un rendez-vous fort sympathique. Un Torrent de Musique. Votre magazine d'actu! Sitio web de Cooperativa. Twitter : alagnium" "Esto es para ti Chemigeek ;. Twitter : alagnium".

This is a recording of a live event in October Una Stubbs. Listener questions and feedback encouraged! Russell for you to listen to on your noisemaker! Travel and entrepreneurship. Kini ay una nga istorya sa daghan nga nahabutang na istorya sa librong 'Larawan'. Summary by April Gonzales Sugilanon nga gisuwat ni Senador Vicente Rama bahin kang Amboy nga palahubog, ug ang iyang pamahala nga kinabuhi tungod sa iyang pagkapalahubog.

Summary by April Gonzales. Unrehearsed, unprepared, unanswered. A podcast by Steev Bishop and Nicolas Papaconstantinou taking on a new topic, every episode. Kettlebell and Bodyweight WOD's to the palm of. The hosts champion adversarial journalism and each week a new guest, often rarely heard or unheard voices, come on the show for an interview. A discussion portion follows with critical stories from the past week follows. It also contains much of the elegant wit found in his short stories.

Comus The Unbearable Bassington, is a charming young man about town. Summary by Noel Badrian. Intense Comics Talk! She was a sickly child, however, while she was travelling she was almost always healthy. Her first trip, in , took her to America, visiting relatives. Her travels there took her from Edo now called Tokyo through the interior - where she was often the first foreigner the locals had met - to Niigata, and from there to Aomori. There she crossed over to Yezo Hokkaido , and her account on the life of the Ainu, an indigenous people of Japan, provides an interesting glimpse of days long past.

Summary by Availle " "Isabella Lucy Bird was a 19th century English traveller, writer, and natural historian. Summary by Availle ". Ali : aligiumento, uhoitsali on PS4, uhohitsali on everything else. Kyle : kbc00per, kbc00per on Xbox and kbcooper on Twitch The only U Unedited, uncensored, Unbiquity.

Books are now in your hands. Das Ganze wird dir bequem auf dem Silbertablett in einem handlichen Vormat als Podcast serviert. So, dass du zu jeder Zeit auf die Musik zugreifen kannst. Wenn du nicht I-Tunes hast, kannst du den Podcast unter dem direkten Link. Unter Podcast findest du dann meine die Musikshow. Du kannst den Podcast herunterladen und abonnieren. We talk about the latest and hottest tech that hits Philippine shores!

Hosted by Carlo Ople of Unbox. Unbox the Video Podcast is a weekly Pinoy online gadget show! Pastor Ro. We buy the newest gadgets, and unbox them for your viewing pleasure. Andru Edwards hosts Unboxing Live, a show that provides you with vicarious thrills from opening new gear. Vicarious Thrills from Opening New Gear. I am a comedian, a new father and husband this podcast is how I live my life surrounded by insanity.

Science Information from North Carolina. Jumpstart your creativity with some practical techniques to get yourself up to speed. Produce more quality work more often! A productivity podcast from sketchee. A record label from Dresden, Germany. Uncanny Valley Radio Sessions. Mike Rugel and the Delta Blues Museum take a raw look at the early history of blues music. Each show includes a series of pre-war blues tracks along with context and exposition.

Visit www. Daily chat that knows no boundaries. Outrageous sex talk, questionable advice and lots of sexy fun with Jane. Live, unscripted, unplanned, with live call ins as well - Broadcast Every weekday from 8am and every Monday 9pm PST, email the show uncensored vodkkaradio. Live, unscripted, unplanned, New Show Evey Week If the feed does not change refresh it..

Thanks For Listening. They gave up and started a podcast instead. If ADD artists were a thing, it would be our thing. Featuring guest appearances by comic book writers and artists as well as game production contributors whom remain active in such fields of development.

Let it out. It's that simple. We conduct an interview with the band and we play a song of their's, that they choose. The artists telling us in their own words about their song. Along the way we hope to bring their music to a greater audience and give you the fans a chance to hear ""what they sound like.. Set in Napoleon's era, it involves a Frenchman returning to his native land to join the Emperor's ranks. Summary by Cathy Barratt Looking for a replacement to Sherlock Holmes after the author had killed him off in , Doyle wrote this murder mystery in the dying years of the 19th century.

Summary by Cathy Barratt. Mobile, Alabama talk show views and news. Summary by Philip Martin A collection of comedic short stories from the perspective of an old country man. Summary by Philip Martin. Musik auf Deutsch. Chat in English. Br'er Rabbit stories were mostly collected directly from the afro-american oral story-telling tradition and are said to be a direct interpretation of Yoruba tales of Hare.

This book contains 11 unique stories and was the last one published before the author's death. Joel Chandler Harris, a newsman in Georgia, grew up listening to folktales told by the local black population.

While this is not a book that will pass a current political correctness test, due to its use of labels for black folks which have gone out of polite conversation, Uncle Remus is a largely sympathetic look at post-war plantation life. Uncle Remus himself is a warm, folksy man of good humor and dry wit, and after finishing his animal stories, the remaining sayings and tales are a moment of history frozen in amber.

Yet the 'Brer Rabbit and 'Brer Fox and the others sound a lot like the people all around us. They tell stories about personalities and faults and virtues in a way that is unique to Uncle Remus. As the shadows grow longer outside, draw up a rocking chair next to the little boy, settle back and listen to the wise old man tell these stories. Rabbit; Mr. Fox and the Deceitful Frogs; Mr. Rabbit grossly deceives Mr. Fox and lots of others. Summary by phil chenevert Uncle Remus, that genial old storyteller, knows how to spin these wonderful tales about the 'criteers' that the little 6 year old boy and many of us adults!

Summary by phil chenevert. As always Uncle Remus can be relied upon to provide funny and pointed insight into human personalities through his story telling. These were all published in the Uncle Remus magazine from and and gathered together in this book by the author. On this show we will feature the finest electronic sounds and guest mixes from all over the world djs and producers. Uncle Scrubby tells the boys and girls of the world. Sheridan Le Fanu. It is notable as one of the earliest examples of the locked room mystery subgenre.

It is not a novel of the supernatural despite a few creepily ambiguous touches , but does show a strong interest in the occult and in the ideas of Swedenborg. Written in , the novel instantly rose to fame and split Americans up and down the country. Stowe was a passionate abolitionist and was inspired to write Uncle Tom when she spent time in Cincinnati in the early part of the 18th century.

She met many slaves who had escaped from Kentucky and was touched by the friendships she built. It was with this sentiment that the novel was born and the deep empathy Stowe had for slaves is evident throughout. As you would expect, the book was hugely provocative with pro-slavery supporters outraged by the negative portrayal of masters within the slave trade. It was said to be so incendiary that Abraham Lincoln claimed Stowe to be ""the little lady who started this great war"".

It is not clear if that quote is genuine but the hype Stowe created both before and after the civil war is definitely real. The novel follows the story of long suffering slave Tom and mother and son duo Eliza and Harry. Whilst Tom is sold down the river by his master, Eliza and her son manage to escape the clutches of slavery. Pleasingly the book ends with an optimistic outlook, one that shook the government at the time and one sure to shake you.

Written in , the novel instantly rose to fame and split Americans up and down the country Stowe was a Connecticut-born teacher at the Hartford Female Academy and an active abolitionist. The novel depicts the harsh reality of slavery while also showing that Christian love and faith can overcome even something as evil as enslavement of fellow human beings. The listener is about to enter a world rich with diverse characters. As an adult male reader, however, the reader's representation of women and children will, necessarily be less than adequate.

He asks for your indulgence. It is set on the failing country estate of a retired professor, Serebrakoff, who returns after a long absence with his beautiful young wife, and throws the household into confusion. In these stories, he encounters a string of characters from Mother Goose's tales and has adventures that are not quite in keeping with her books! Intro by Mark F. Smith Uncle Wiggily Longears, an old bunny gentleman now stricken with rheumatism and getting around with a cane, still is quite active.

In this collection, the loveable old rabbit stays close to home and visits woodland friends. Summary by Lynne Thompson Howard Garis, one of the most prolific children's writers of the 20th century, is credited with writing over Uncle Wiggily stories. Summary by Lynne Thompson. In this collection, the loveable old rabbit visits other childhood friends from the ""Alice In Wonderland"" stories, once he discovers his rheumatism is not bothering him so much one day and he feels the need for adventure.

Summary by Lynne Thompson " "Howard Garis, one of the most prolific children's writers of the 20th century, is credited with writing over Uncle Wiggily stories. Summary by Lynne Thompson ". Possum prescribes a journey to help him move around, have a change of air, and a good long bout of traveling to get more exercise.

So Uncle Wiggily packs his valise and sets forth! Summary by Daryl Wor. Uncle Wiggily Longears is a loveable rabbit who suffers from rheumatism and has many woodland friends and innocent adventures. Summary by Lynne Thompson This is the second of 79 Uncle Wiggily books published and contains another selection of bedtime stories from those originally published in the Newark Evening News every day except Saturday for over 40 years. Good Techno from spain.

Big questions of ordinary people. Big Questions of Ordinary People. It's funny to some people. Maybe it will be funny to you. Tell your friends if you think it is. Email : silence sarcasm. Cell : " Cringecasting tm In Dickens founded a new journal called All the Year Round and the Uncommercial Traveller articles would be among his main contributions.

He seems to have chosen the title and persona of the Uncommercial Traveller as a result of a speech he gave on the 22 December to the Commercial Travellers' School London in his role as honorary chairman and treasurer. The persona sits well with a writer who liked to travel, not only as a tourist, but also to research and report what he found; visiting Europe, America and giving book readings throughout Britain.

He often suffered from insomnia and his night-time wanderings gave him an insight into some of the hidden aspects of Victorian London, details of which he also incorporated into his novels. Summary by Wikipedia The Uncommercial Traveller is a collection of literary sketches and reminiscences written by Charles Dickens. Summary by Wikipedia. This show features the leaders of charities, foundations and corporations rocking our world.

The Rock the World Network is a community of uncommon givers. Produced monthly and three to five minutes in length, these audio podcasts uncover the truth about the Revolutionary and Civil Wars, the Great Society and the Great Depression. Whether it was invention or intervention, innovation or despair, UnCommon History speaks of women and immigrant people. It will unmask the characters of our past, introduce the culture of American Indians and tell true stories you never learned in school.

UnCommon History focuses on the bizarre, rare and unknown of New Jersey, including events, people and places. At the beginning of every month go back in time to learn new and interesting facts derived from this wonderful state. Three average guys, one a pastor, one a professional musician, and one a jack of all trades and future seminarian, talking about every day stuff in an uncommon way.

We play joints from established underground heads and demos from new jacks. The show is hosted by Nasa founder of Uncommon Records. For more info check out www. Join the conversation! Feedback welcome : uncommonsensepodcast gmail. The uncommonsense podcast is a viewpoint from outside the box. In an age where common sense isn't good enough, Bill Sharpe brings your weekly dose of Uncommon Sense. Sometimes funny and sometimes serious, uncommon sensecast will always have it's own unique spin on how things are in the lives of the two hosts as the spin tales of life from their own different perspectives.

Uncommon SenseCast is a podcast of Al and Paul wh…. You can listen-in as some of General Aviation's most knowledgeable, opinionated, and plain-spoken characters do some online, hangar-flying. He writes far into early mornings, after his wearying hours of scrubbing toilets and sweeping floors. He loves writing that much.

But it's not only the joy of words that keeps him grinding; it's his desire to retire the janitor's mop. He sees being published as the key to living an improved life. James has another deep-seated conviction : that he's not good enough. He secretly longs to be accepted. However, the conventional others in his life seem all too willing to remind him that he's wasting his time. Then he meets and falls in love with Leigh, the one bright spot in his endless misery of self-doubt.

A quiet but resolutely religious girl, she has to fight off disapproval of her own from overly critical parents, whose insults are countered by James's often-voiced admiration of her. Likewise, Leigh's faith in his talents begins to build his confidence, eventually allowing her to introduce him to a different way to help himself : relying on God.

Ultimately, James's newfound faith is sorely tested to the point of doubt when his dream to be published seems to melt into a mirage, smothered by countless rejection slips from agents and publishers. His faith is also battered by having to fight highly emotional battles and suffer fear and loss. Just when James appears hopelessly sapped by devastating events, one last door opens, and he's rocked by an epiphany. Buy this book. Read it. Share it with everyone you know.

You—and they—will be glad you did! But it's not only the joy of words that keeps him gr". There is no script so you never know where each conversation will go. Laugh along with Mike and his guests. Give us a listen! No, seriously. Do it. Don't stray away. We promise you'll enjoy it. True Behind the Scenes Source! Also features conversations with some of your favorite funk artists Get on the Funk Bus, and take a ride with the Uncut Funk Jeden Freitag neu.

Mit Berichten von den Filmfestivals in Berlin und Cannes. In HD. Der Malte Welding Podcast. Undaground South Podcast. The Underground Millionaire Radio is a radio program that has sports, music, and entertainment guest speakers and helps our primary urban inner city audience learn how to build wealth and achieve their business dreams. In Joss, We Trust. Supporting the underground scene A variety show touching on music, relationships, life, from a comical and open minded outlook.

Supporting the underground scene. Every month a new set with some new bombs for you. No topic is off limits, and no door is too impenetrable for the always inquisitive and often horney and drunk , Suzy McCoppin. For more Playboy Radio shows, exclusive features and past episodes, please go to PlayboyRadio. Topics ranging from I believe my calling is broadcast journalism. I love everything film and current issues related.

I appreciate that you took about 45 seconds out your day to read my bio, that means a lot to me! The story of an American Muslim making her dreams a reality. By g1's We discuss software development, both new and old, small and large. We like all that is good but prefer Punk to all else.

So kick back and enjoy. You get what you pay for! G have sworn to watch less television and bring no new books into thier home so that they may actually read the books they already own. The Under Library Arrest blog and podcast chronicle their reading adventures.

Under My Host talks, drinks, and learns about your favorite beverages with the brewers, distillers, and winemakers who make them. In the second part of my monthly podcast I will be featuring a special guest dj. Check out my artist page at www. Thank you for your listen and make sure to subscribe.

Donovan travis undersedationlive. USL takes a weekly look back at the geek news of the world. And adds a unique take with offbeat humor and commentary. The apparent 'king' of the tribe has become infatuated with the fair-skinned female intruder of the group and, well, suffice it to say there's a lot of action, attempted escapes, heroism, and peculiar interactions between all, reminiscent of H.

Rider Haggard with a touch of Edgar Rice Burroughs. Presented by 'Whispering' Bob Harris and his son Miles, from their own Apple Tree Studio, the show focuses on giving you brand new recommendations, with special interview guests and live sessions by top artists sprinkled in between as well. It is a good music haven.

Under The Apple Tree is a podcast show for music lovers. Presented by 'Whispering' Bob Harris and his son Miles, from their own Apple Tree Studio, the show focuses on giving you brand new recommendations, with special interview guests and live sessions Please join us as we learn about you, and you learn how to be awesome, coming to you weekly till we are too hungover to talk about anything. Life is never perfect its always a little bit wrinkled so you might as well hear about it from Under The Blanket.

When I was 17 I was a guest DJ for a night on a local top 40 station, so you know this is gonna be good. Blahg and Grace feedback utccovers. Join us Under the Comic Covers weekly. The Best in Indie Comics. You can also find all of our shows in the iTunes Store. What games have you missed? Random thoughts, jokes and jokes and jokes. The next 50 years was persuasion through creativity and media tonnage. But advertising is no longer a loud one-way conversation.

It's a delicate dialogue now. The goal is no longer to triumph by weight, but to win by influence. Welcome to Under the Influence. An exploration of that critical shift. The first 50 years of modern advertising was hard-sell. We'll talk about a wide variety of things from sports to movies to pro-wrestling and many other things.

The two of us we'll be joined by others we've met throughout the years. This is a podcast about friends and for friends. Two best-friends talk, other friends will join. Each week we explore artists under the label Get it? So sit back and enjoy with your hosts Daniel, Maddie, and Patrick.

Ben is a horse master, and loves horses, so when the Moss' take the young boy in, they decide to give him work at the neighbors house driving cows on a horse, of course. After that a series of events happens, and Ben finds out his beloved father is dead. Miss Celia, a neighbor, feels sorry and comforts him, and finally offers to let Ben stay with her and her fourteen-year-old brother, Thornton who is called Thorny. After that many adventures and summer-happenings go on in Celia's house.

Sancho gets lost, Ben is accused of stealing, Miss Celia even gets hurt and Ben takes a wild ride on his horse, and… The rest you'll know from reading the book. Summary by Wikipedia, revised by Stav Nisser. When sisters Bab and Betty Moss decide to have a tea party one spring morning, little did they know a strange and talented dog and a bedraggled circus run-away would come into their lives.

Ben Brown is believed to be orphaned. With no family to return to, the girl's kind neighbour, Miss Celia, takes Ben under her care, where he learns the true meaning of friendship, home and family. From the famous to the obscure, signed or unsigned, live or dead, good or Join Tinker Mal and Planxty Gramster for an hour of heart-warming songs and tunes and infantile wit. If we like it, we'll play it. Don't say we didn't warn you.

Here you'll find discussions of specific stories and general topics ranging all throughout Doctor Who's year-run. Under the Radar is a podcast about and for lesser-known folks building web products. If you're building a SaaS, creating productized services or building an audience, then tune in. We're in this together! Nathan Powell is a design consultant, two time author and bootstrapped founder of nusii, the proposal solution for design professionals.

Nate Williams Podcast Page. These things include interviews with my friends, celebrities, coverage of music and movies, or anything else I feel like adding. Mostly it will be interviews with friends a. This was what he wanted? An adventure? Some excitement to fight depression? If so, he'd succeeded beyond all measure And all John could think about was getting home.

Le Speak Easy, le club terasse Chill-out de Toulouse. America had made a bad investment in sub-prime mortgages, and I had made a bad investment in sub-prime musical talent. After much rumination, it became quite apparent that I needed to stop focussing on music, and get a real job. I looked around a bit, and found all the real jobs were either taken or had been cut back due to the recession.

I wrote and recorded these songs before, after, between, and often-times during my hours at work. As a group, the songs on UTTT embody the confusion, anger, and absurd resignation that becomes manifest when unbridled creative energy is continually reigned in by the ugly truth of economics.

The sound of Under U blends all aspects of house, creating mindscape journeys for the listener. Progressive Techno Tech Minimal etc.

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