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I started the keto diet about one month before the wedding with a goal of losing 10 pounds. Since a low-calorie diet can produce up to a 2-pound weight loss per week, 10 pounds over 4 weeks didn't feel extreme. If the keto diet plan was as great as had been touted, I thought 10 pounds would be easy.

Vitamin C is one of the biggest immune system boosters of all. In fact, a lack of vitamin C can even make you more prone to getting sick. Foods rich in vitamin C include oranges, grapefruits, tangerines, strawberries, bell peppers, spinach, kale and broccoli. When change occurs in our lives, be at work or at home, stress enables our bodies to react and lets the body respond mentally, physically and emotionally.

When we are stressed for long periods of time, we can become imbalanced or out of equilibrium causing our tinnitus to seem louder on some days more than others. Joint pain can be caused by injury or disease affecting any of the ligaments, bursae for example, bursitis , or tendons surrounding the joint. Injury or disease for example, the autoimmune diseases systemic lupus erythematosus and rheumatoid arthritis can also affect the ligaments, cartilage, and bones within the joint, leading to a painful joint.

Pain is also a feature of joint inflammation arthritis and infection for example, Lyme disease and can be a feature of rare tumors of the joint for example, pigmented villonodular synovitis or chronic fatigue syndrome. Depending on your treatment plan, you may check and record your blood sugar as many as four times a day or more often if you're taking insulin.

Careful monitoring is the only way to make sure that your blood sugar level remains within your target range. People with type 2 diabetes who aren't taking insulin generally check their blood sugar much less frequently. It's easy to get stressed out when the pressures of work, family, and everyday life are weighing on you. These stresses can have not only an emotional impact, they can cause physical pain as well. Stress and pain are often closely linked.

Each one can have an impact on the other, creating a vicious cycle that sets the stage for chronic pain and chronic stress. So, part of getting pain relief is learning how to better manage stress. The body is typically dehydrated upon waking up, which the body interprets as being hungry, causing people to overeat. Hence, drinking water first thing in the morning can reduce hunger.

Drinking water before meals reduces food intake because water fills up the stomach. Drinking adequate water and staying hydrated helps in overall health as well. Joint discomfort is common and usually felt in the hands, feet, hips, knees, or spine. Pain may be constant or it can come and go. Sometimes the joint can feel stiff, achy, or sore. Some patients complain of a burning, throbbing, or "grating" sensation. In addition, the joint may feel stiff in the morning but loosen up and feel better with movement and activity.

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If you consume more eggs than your maintenance calories, you will be in a caloric surplus and will gain weight. Losing 5 pounds a week comes to reducing your food intake by calories over seven days. I'd say that breast cancer patients are the majority of patients who come to us for help with weight gain.

Weight gain is also extremely common among patients with prostate cancer, as well as lymphoma, multiple myeloma and chronic leukemia. Consuming foods high in vitamin C such as grapefruits, oranges, tangerines, sweet red pepper, broccoli, strawberries, kale, and kiwifruit are thought to increase white blood cell production, which is key to fighting infection. Studies indicate that a diet rich in high protein foods, such as eggs, fish, seafood, legumes, nuts, meat, and dairy results in overall less abdominal fat, more satiety, and an increased metabolic function.

Adding fiber-rich foods to meals is also a key in keeping off the body fat. The correct answer is that fat is converted to carbon dioxide and water. You exhale the carbon dioxide and the water mixes into your circulation until it's lost as urine or sweat. If you lose 10 pounds of fat, precisely 8.

Anxiety causes the muscles to tense up, which can lead to pain and stiffness in almost any area of the body. Constant stress and worry can also prevent the immune system from working properly, leading to decreased resistance to infection and disease. Your slower metabolism will slow your weight loss, even if you eat the same number of calories that helped you lose weight. When the calories you burn equal the calories you eat, you reach a plateau.

To lose more weight, you need to either increase your physical activity or decrease the calories you eat. Diabetes is a result of too much glucose in the blood. If blood glucose stays high for too long, diabetes can damage the heart, blood vessels, eyes, kidneys and nerves over time, causing chronic problems and premature death.

Exfoliating your skin, moisturizing twice a day, using a hydrating serum and face mask, and applying a retinoid product may all help replace dull-looking skin with a healthier, more vibrant glow. If you have questions about your skin or which product to use, be sure to talk to your doctor or a dermatologist.

This approach means that a person does not need to track their fat and protein intake. Some people use keto diets to lose weight or reduce their body fat. Ketosis is defined as a natural metabolic process that involves the production of energy from the breakdown of fat into ketone bodies. Signs that suggest you are in ketosis include fatigue, bad breath, dry mouth, weight loss, flu-like symptoms and decreased hunger and thirst. There comes a time when endless deadlines, annoying boss, late nights, no set sleep schedules and the long travelling time finally takes a toll on health.

It is that time when even your critical cup of espresso capitulates to terrible headaches. So, how do we deal with this problem, which keeps reoccurring every time we are about to reach our weekend time! I would like to say that this blog really convinced me to do it! Thanks, very good post. Ketosis is a metabolic adaptation to allow the body to survive in a period of famine. Your body will break down ketone bodies, a type of fuel the liver produces from fat, instead of sugar or glucose from carbohydrates.

To achieve ketosis, the diet requires you eat 75 percent of your calories from fat, compared to percent normally. It also requires 5 percent of calories from carbohydrates, about grams per day, and 15 percent of calories from protein. Strength training helps build muscles which replace body fat. It is also an effective exercise regime that can help you burn calories even when at rest. Crunches, lunges, planks, abs workouts and crunches are effective exercises that can help you burn belly fat.

Thank you for sharing your thoughts, keep up the best work. The military diet, also called the 3-day diet, is a short-term, rapid weight loss diet that claims to help you lose up to 10 pounds 4. The diet plan involves a 3-day, calorie-restricted meal plan followed by 4 days off. Water is the key to life, and it turns out it's also one of the easiest ways to help your metabolism. That means if you drink a few cups of water every hour, you'll keep your metabolism at peak performance all day.

It takes time for the body to deplete fuel stores and mobilise fat stores and as such ensuring you are giving yourself enough time to lose weight is important. As a general rule of thumb, you will need at least weeks to drop kg and up to 3 months to lose 10kg. No cure for diabetes currently exists, but the disease can go into remission. When diabetes goes into remission, it means that the body does not show any signs of diabetes, although the disease is technically still present.

Stress is a feeling of being under abnormal pressure. This pressure can come from different aspects of your day to day life. Such as an increased workload, a transitional period, an argument you have with your family or new and existing financial worries. You may find that it has a cumulative effect, with each stressor building on top of one another. Thank you so much for ding the impressive job here, everyone will surely like your post.

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This means that stress isn't a root cause of neuropathy. Even if you're incredibly stressed every day for months, that by itself won't cause damage to your nerves. This process is called ketosis. When there is a complete switch in the body, the smell changes to that of ammonia or cat litter.

Everybody is different and the way you lose weight might also vary from another person. Not many of us know that belly fat can also be a result of stress. This is because when you are stressed, cortisol levels in the body rise, resulting in storage of fat around the belly area. Cinnamon can boost metabolism, since the body uses more energy to process the spice than it does for other foods.

Cinnamon may have an insulin-like action in the body, which is seen in the way sugar is broken down in the body. Cinnamon can also improve body metabolism, targeting the fat deposited in the abdominal area. Stress is the feeling of being under too much mental or emotional pressure. Pressure turns into stress when you feel unable to cope. People have different ways of reacting to stress, so a situation that feels stressful to one person may be motivating to someone else.

Many of life's demands can cause stress, particularly work, relationships and money problems. And, when you feel stressed, it can get in the way of sorting out these demands, or can even affect everything you do. Since oatmeal is a whole grain and rich in fiber, eating oatmeal in the morning may help boost metabolism, helping your body to quickly convert food into energy.

Oatmeal is one of the foods that can help accelerate your energy levels and improve metabolic function. Diabetes can affect almost every part of your body. Therefore, you will need to manage your blood glucose levels, also called blood sugar. Managing your blood glucose, as well as your blood pressure and cholesterol, can help prevent the health problems that can occur when you have diabetes.

It's often due to fluid retention, abnormal growths, constipation, or pregnancy. Unintentional weight gain can be periodic, continuous, or rapid. Periodic unintentional weight gain includes regular fluctuations in weight. One example of unintentional weight gain is experienced during a woman's menstrual cycle. This was an incredibly wonderful post. What's up, just wanted to tell you, I loved this article. It was helpful. Keep on posting!

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This type of diet, as stated in its name, limits the amount of carbohydrates you consume, generally to 50g of carbohydrates per day. They are often replaced by foods high in healthy fat and protein, although the proportions vary from diet to diet and person to person, because there is no one diet for everyone. People generally adopt low-carb diets for varying periods of time to lose weight, but they have also been shown to be beneficial in fighting type 2 diabetes and obesity.

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Dutch and English translations from and respectively indicate that there was a long-lived market for the work. As the dual-language approach indicates, the book aimed at a wide audience and was intended to appeal to physicians, humanists, and also midwives. Rueff was responsible for the training and oversight of all midwives in Zurich and had a special interest in this group of readers. Giving full play to his medical and humanist interests, he described recent local births as well as others dating back to Roman antiquity.

The Latin edition was produced by the Feyerabend publishing house in Frankfurt- am-Main. Another striking new image depicts instead of hands, eyes on his stomach, and animal heads Adam and Eve standing beside the tree of knowledge. De conceptu, fol. The right-hand page depicts conjoined twins born in Switzerland in ; the caption reminds the reader of a similar Swiss case from De conceptu, fols.

Klinkenberg ca. Klinkenberg Leyden. One boy, two heads. One woman, three breasts. One sheep, two heads. One pig, no head. Klinken- berg, known to us only through this collection of original drawings. Left, opposite, and page , top Cephalothoracopagus twins conjoined at the head and thorax. Child or children? The caption, translated from the Dutch by Willem Mulder , reads: A human monster after a full-term pregnancy There are 2 boys fused at the breast and part of the abdomen There are 2 umbilicals and 2 heads that make a whole.

They lived for 2 days. It is as if two beings, in turning toward each other, melted inward so that half of each intended face is now deep inside the skull. Is there room in the dark for inner faces and one brain? Topped by uneven brows and a full mop of hair, the face we see gazes downward with a scowl of worldly disdain.

If these eyes opened at all, perhaps each glimpsed a scene neither much liked. On the back of the head a pair of vestigial ears has squeezed out at the base of the skull. Pieces of the missing features have begun to form, but there is no chance that there will be a second face on the backside of this skull, as in an ancient Janus.

Of the fused Heads, here one can see the 2 ears are situated close to each other Above there is an oblong form with a narrow little growth to be seen. I turn the drawing upside down, a face appears. Elongated, the extra folds and ears turn into a fleshy nose, beard and horns curl like ram horns. Did anyone at the time of this birth also see this devil in the nape of the neck?

Page , bottom Bicephalus double-headed conjoined twins. The center of their bodies, strained and warped: incomplete division, commingled organs. If only they had been able to pull away from each other, become unstuck before birth. In a flip book of conjoined twins how anatomies change! Arms flail, embrace, legs kick, entwine, a dance step is executed.

Opposite A sequential dissection of a headless fetus. This lumpish sack with vestigial hooves is a pig with no head and no labels. The skin is unbroken, the dome smooth between the shoulders. The drawings of the crooked skeleton and sausage-like body lack charm.

Lacy tissues, gelatinous sacks, beautifully coiling intestines. The boundary between artistic spectacle and pathological specimen is thin. Opened-up, translucent bags, views of internal perfection, lacking all external charm, but delicate, magical. Page Three-breasted woman. Picture of a woman with three Breasts.

She let her Child suck at my house pictured by painter Banting in request of Professor Suerman Signed in the year G. Was her condition a wonder or a curse? If she gives birth, does she nurse a litter? Page The sheep with two heads. Rough but lush, curling hair, furry conjoined ears, lolling tongues.

Did it live in a sideshow, or on a farm where you could pay the farmer to take a look? Centuries ago and throughout the world today doctors, scholars, priests, and ordinary citi- zens have asked simple questions about anomalies, trying to wrestle the nature and numbers into line. Was this kind of birth caused by human behavior?

Did the mother sleep with a bear? Above, top : Cephalothoracopagus conjoined twins Was she a witch? How do you determine the number of human beings? Is it by the number of above : Progressive dissection of a headless pig above : Bicephalus conjoined twins legs, arms? How many souls, one or two? Mystery and much sorrow. Brought from their native Siam by an English sea captain in , they toured the United States for a time, under the aegis of P. To draw a large audience of ticket-paying customers, prodigies had to put on a show, and the more varied the better.

The brothers performed feats of strength, somersaults, and gymnastics and topped competing acts by playing the badminton-like game of battledore and shuttlecock. The scrapbook holds five illustrations of Chang and Eng with rackets in their hands.

Did they play singles or doubles? Their opponents are never depicted. Chang and Eng were relentless merchandisers. Classified ads, posters, and handbills in the scrapbook tout the sale of keepsakes from the twins and souvenir pamphlets. You saw the lithographs, political cartoons, and testimonials collected in brothers, you saw the two and only. The medical examinations were also staged as shows. And a consciousness that was private and shared.

A few hours after Chang died of a by words such as and, plus, or also that have an additive blood clot in his brain, Eng is said to have died of shock. The scrapbook is a reliquary of the or causal relation. A greater meaning arises, a whole promotional haze of entertainment, commerce, and science that surrounded the twins. Chang greater than the sum of its parts, when the related ideas are conjoined.

Printed pamphlet with lithographs, 8 pp. People had always been born with atypical anatomies, but in the nineteenth century a new scientific, medical discourse emerged. Earthworms, snails, and some reptiles could be hermaphrodites, these experts argued, but not humans. The author of this pamphlet, the engraver and caricaturist James Akin ca.

Audiences liked to read about oddities of various sorts, scientists were keen on collecting unusual specimens, and physicians yearned to dissect extraordinary cadavers. Pejorative labels were also frequently applied. Facts, after p. But later in the pamphlet Carey is presented as a human being, a moral creature. So it remains opposite: James Carey driving his coach. Facts, frontispiece today, though increasingly challenged by bioethicists and the intersex-rights movement.

Page Rochester, New York. Motion picture, black-and-white, silent, intertitles, 16mm; S chizophrenia was a new diagnosis in interwar American medicine. James Daniel Page, professor of psychology at the University of Rochester, supervised the filming.

Shot with only a stationary camera, his silent, twelve-minute film records eighteen patients in scenes of fifteen to forty-five seconds. The inmates, white adults of both sexes, stand or sit, mostly outdoors, at a redbrick institution with porches and well-kept lawns. An opening sequence depicts a large gathering of men socializing on park benches on hospital grounds. Each patient performs a single symptom. Page presumably made his film to provide in-house instruction about schizo- phrenia and its subtypes.

A few written sentences are interspersed throughout, but there is no narrative coherence. The hospital and suited authority figures are unidentified. No patient names or pseudonyms are given. Viewers learn nothing about the cases or about schizophrenia as a psychological process. The patients perform for the camera and seem less crazy than comical. Their jerky, exaggerated movements are almost Chaplinesque. How many under- went insulin coma therapy or were surgically sterilized for eugenic reasons, two widespread practices at state asylums in the s?

How many were given electroshock or lobotomized in the s and s? And how many of them would endure until the advent of chlorpromazine , the first antipsychotic compound, and the era of modern psychopharmacology? Printed journal, 4 vols. In five years he issued four volumes. Since no technology yet existed that could reproduce photographs, each one had to be printed in numerous copies and then glued by hand to a special paper insert with handwritten captions.

Notwithstanding the resulting high cost of the volumes, Collection enjoyed wide popularity among Russian dermatologists. The next year Inozemtsev arranged for Mansurov to travel abroad for advanced training in dermatology, particularly syphilis. Mansurov conducted extensive investigations and wrote his dis- sertation on syphilization, which he defended upon his return to Moscow in Its cover featured a wood engraving of a they awarded him the doctor of medicine degree.

However, teaching was difficult. Pastrana died in childbirth while in Moscow in Anatomy professor Ivan M. Sokolov performed the autopsy could study dermatology and treat patients. Although Mansurov was not paid for teaching and and embalmed her body, along with that of her stillborn had to earn an income through an extensive private practice that occupied much of his time, in son, who was delivered by caesarean section. In , when the Medical pp.

Undiscouraged, only a ward with twenty beds in an old city hospital. Determined to create a solid clinical base Clinical Collection 3 , facing p. Clinical Collection 3 , for research and teaching, Mansurov turned to private patrons and in a few years raised more medical periodicals.

In he produced a voluminous monograph on tertiary syphilis, facing p. In Mansurov issued a second edition next year he became chairman of its department of venereal and skin diseases. His appoint- of his popular Collection. But that was its last year of publication.

The next year, the Moscow ment coincided with important developments that enabled him to advance his specialty. Late in a large building for his dermatological hospital was diseases a required course for medical students. Almost simultaneously Moscow University finally completed. Milan, Italy. Vallenzasca was a man of many parts: physician; hospital administrator; member and correspondent of scientific and medical societies in Vienna, Bologna, Venice, Treviso, and Rovigo; recipient of the Grand Gold Medal for Civil Merit with ribbon from the imperial court in Austria; as well as a skilled artist and an adroit diplomat and courtier.

The manuscript was an account of a mysterious and terrible disease, la Falcadina probably a strain of syphilis , which had long afflicted a mining district in the Tyrolean Alps. The magnificent lettering and embellishments came from the hand of a talented profes- sional scribe.

Prince Ranieri, to whom the manuscript is dedicated, was a Hapsburg archduke who presided over the imperial court in Milan when Stendhal lived there. He laid the first stone in the railroad bridge over the lagoon from terra firma to Venice. At that time, Falcadina which Vallenzasca compares to the Hungarian skerlievo, the Scottish sibbens, and Canadian lue had afflicted the region for thirty-six years.

Vallenzasca vanquished it in two years, through the imposition of quarantines, forty days of isolation in a hospital ward. The tactic was so effective that Vallenzasca of calligraphic ornaments and festoons. Note the whirlpool was able to shut down the hospital in Dedicated to a viceroy disease, or a sexually transmitted disease, or something else, became moot.

Domenica Strim, daughter of a certain Matteo, lived the life of a rootless wayfarer opposite: Martino Micheluzzi, a young boatman, was hit in for many years until, in , she returned to her native Falcade from Trieste. She became the face by a piece of lumber. That was the first known case of Falcadina. Falcadina was initiated by trauma to the face. The cases are told with fine-grained attention to the manifestations and causes of the disease.

Martino Micheluzzi opposite , a strapping young boatman working the Cordevole River, was hit in the face by a piece of lumber. Inflammation soon followed. In many cases Falcadina seems to have been induced by trauma. The severe scarring that followed caused his mouth to shrink. He could eat only soft food, and that no larger in size than a walnut.

The sores eventually formed crusts and attacked the soft flesh of the face. The entire family of Adriana De Rocco, age fifty-five bottom left , succumbed to Falca- dina until she, last of all, contracted the disease from her grown, married daughter. The treatment involved mercuric oxide, decoctions of burdock root and holywood, Ethiops Mineral black sulfide of mercury , and sulfur fumigations. She gradually recovered and returned home.

The manuscript paints a grim picture of poverty and filth in the mountain villages. He was a skilled rhetorician, who looked to the imperial viceroy for patronage, advancement, and help for the patients under his care. Known by the Name of the Cow Pox. Printed book, with etching in colored ink, with watercolor, 80 pp. With its characteristic pustules on the skin, smallpox spread in waves throughout Africa and Asia in ancient times, then into Europe in the Middle Ages and, after European contact, to the Americas and Oceania.

By the eighteenth century smallpox was a global pandemic, causing the death, suffering, and disfig- urement of millions. Jenner, an obscure, London-educated physician who practiced medicine in rural Gloucestershire, saw the effects of the disease firsthand and took to studying it. It was common knowledge among Gloucestershire residents that dairymaids who contracted cowpox could not get smallpox. Jenner documented some of these incidents and conducted his own experiments, validating and transforming folk knowledge into scientific discovery, through the methods and rhetoric of science.

When Jenner later exposed the boy to smallpox, Phipps showed no sign of the disease. Jenner applied this method to a number of children, most famously his own son Inquiry, case As Jenner explained, he wanted to visualize on one arm the stages of cowpox from its early blistering to its later dimpled rupture. But it was not simply the small number of case histories in his treatise on smallpox prevention that led the formidable institution to reject him, it was the unlikeliness and novelty of his suggested safeguard.

How could infected fluid from a beast prevent disease in humans? Before Jenner, variolation was the principal method of protecting against smallpox. By using the in some of the western counties of England, particularly Gloucestershire, and known by the name of the cow pox less virulent cowpox, such results could be avoided. Inquiry , facing p. Printed book with chromolithographs, 10 parts in 2 vols. Hebra accordingly advertised his atlas as a clinic in book form, with the life-size images standing in for the sick and the texts for the words of the teacher.

His clinic on paper, Hebra claimed, has the additional advantage of always providing a typical example of even the most uncommon skin condition. While the earlier atlases authored by Willan and Alibert had been illustrated with hand-colored engravings, this tech- nique allowed the artist to draw directly onto the lithographic stone, and also to print in color.

The images focus on body parts such as legs, arms, genitalia, face, and neck and not only elaborate on the skin lesions but also render dress or hairdo with care. Viewers accustomed to the traditions of modern portraiture might be tempted to regard them as empathically rendered likenesses of individual persons.

However, these images oscillate between portraits of diseases and effigies of patients. The image of the two children with a pigment deficiency known as albinism, for instance, lacks any accompanying case description p.

They are generic Austrian children, and the suggestion that they are siblings mainly stresses the fact that their condition is a hereditary one, independent of an otherwise good state of health. Another image depicts a father and son with hirsutism pp.

They are treated like medical curiosities; the text relates them to portraits of a seventeenth-century family with a similar condition initially collected for the cabinet of curiosities at Ambras castle. Hebra says that this is a rare case related outline drawing. Atlas pt. As demon- strated here for the depiction of the tattooed man, each lithograph is accompanied by a print restricted to an outline drawing into which numbers are inserted, mapping the disease, or, in this case, the pictures tattooed on his body.

Grasping it with your fingers, you press your face against the rim of the felt-lined device and attempt to focus on the image. Originally black and white, the photographs above: Stereoscope copper, wood, and iron hinges, with were hand tinted to display the range of colors in skin disease. Stereoscopic Skin Clinic cancers, and especially syphilis in its infinite variety.

Early-twentieth-century medical schools top, left to right:Eczema erythematosum facei: A chronic typically had a Department of Dermatology and Syphilology. In the cards shown here, rash of the face commonly seen in adults. Larger moles, he suggests, can be destroyed with solid carbon dioxide tendency to spontaneous recovery. Verlag von Ferdinand Enke, Stuttgart, Germany. Printed booklet, 24 pp. When the lines are askew, both eyes do not fix on the same point. It is hard to live with the ensuing double vision; the image from one of the eyes is suppressed by the brain, and instead of seeing double the person literally sees single.

This edition was published in The cards come in pairs that, viewed through a stereoscope, make a composite picture. An umbrella handle is bereft of its canopy. The strabismatic child will see only the handle or the canopy. Asking her what she sees will indicate which eye is fixing on an image and which is suppressed. According to Sattler, other stereoscope cards, featuring abstract shapes, were hard for children to relate to or describe.

Thus the sad moon, the chick following the rooster, etc. Nonetheless ophthalmology was profoundly changed by National Socialist policies regarding Jewish doctors and scientists; by Sattler was one of the few strabis- mus specialists left in Germany.

To have such a condition was profoundly dangerous; under the Nazis, hereditary conditions associated with undesirable character, even eminently correctable ones, were grounds for sterilization or worse. Hoeber, Inc. Printed book with color illustrations by J. McGuiness Myers, 2 vols. Anyone who has gone forehead-to-forehead with an ophthalmologist will have some familiarity with biomicroscopy. But few of us have much sense of what might be seen in the depths of our own eyes with that devastating beam.

In Milton L. Given the lights and lenses that constitute the technique, one wonders why the camera is so little involved. Without the imprimatur of medicine this might appear a quintessential example of outsider art, an obsessive cataloguing of fantastic images of the diseased inner eye cut by light. Biomicroscopy of the Eye, vol. Biomicroscopy couples a microscope with a focused beam of light; its history is entwined with that of the lightbulb.

The biomicroscope works, Berliner tells us, like a search- light in a night sky, or sunlight entering a darkened room through a crack. Objects in the path of the searchlight beam are illuminated, or suspended particles of dust become visible as they scatter the sunlight. Printed book, pp. But as she aged and lost her girlish charm public attention faded. Upon his return sixteen months later, he was dismayed to find Bridgman throwing tantrums and parroting orthodox doctrine.

With the support of eminent theologian Edwards Park, whom she enlisted to write the introduction, Lamson argued that Howe had misunderstood his own pupil. Optometry was professionalizing at the time, and Mayerle was on board.

But Mayerle straddled the line. A panel in the center replaces the alphabetic characters with symbols for children and adults who were illiterate or who could not read any of the other writing systems offered. Directly above the center panel is a version of the radiant dial that tests for astigmatism. On either side of that are lines that test the muscular strength of the eyes. Finally, across the bottom, boxes test for color vision, a feature intended especially according to one advertisement for those working on railroads and steamboats.

The chart measures 22 by 28 inches and is printed on heavy cardboard; a positive version of it appears on one side, a negative version on the reverse. Rice your professional expertness. Didusch Baltimore. His illustrations, like those of his teacher, had a hyperrealistic shine, a gloss that gave his drawings of living tissue the luster of commercial magazine art. But why did Firor prefer hand-rendered illustrations for his article?

Before , limita- tions in halftone printing technology made photographic reproductions appear gray and muddy. By contrast reproductions of drawings were highly legible. The illustrator showed what the surgeon wished to demonstrate. No more, no less. Placid animals were best. The operation resulted in a massive drop in blood pressure and, later, a fatal transfusion reaction from mixing the blood of unrelated animals.

Firor repeated the procedure on forty pairs of dogs. All died, he noted, but some survived, unanesthetized, for as long as six days. The monkeys survived the procedure but without hormone replace- connecting the jugular vein of one to the carotid artery of ment died shortly after. Was Firor a monster?

Far from it. He was a family man whose young son likely had a pet of his own. He wrote articles for theological journals in his spare time. He was the author of influen- tial research papers, the recipient of awards, and the subject of a Time magazine profile.

Today such procedures would be prohibited. They were as disposable as candy wrappers. People too, if poor, black, imprisoned, disabled, or mentally ill, were used without their knowledge or consent for potentially lethal experiments. I did. Yet the atlas itself is a bizarre admixture.

Tracheotomy shares a page with disarticulated fingers. Another head turned to profile is a conglomeration of bends, folds, and impos- sible torsions of skin amounting to a type that could be termed a convolute. Skin is what matters most, but not real skin.

The dreamer is an illustrator or surgeon for whom skin tears like paper, in whose hand, and through whose eye, bodies can be cut from the swath of their environment like paper dolls. I imagine our artist to be a sign painter by day and a dauber of syphilitic chancres by night. We see forms, mostly pink on ocher-colored backgrounds. Free floating, three hands detached at the wrist perform a ballet of fingers in a macabre parade of missing thumbs. Suddenly, noses struck off are reapplied to a face.

Atlas of Colored Plates, pl. The flap of arm skin will need to acquire a blood supply from the vessels of the face toward the formation of a new nose. Scrapbook, with extra illustration, fancy section pages. Whatever the cause, the result was unusual intimacy between mesmerizer and mesmerized.

People in trances communed with distant minds. They saw through solid objects and even bodily tissues to identify illnesses. The scrapbooks also document the mesmeric hospital that Purland helped found for the alleviation of pain during amputation, tumor excisions, tooth pulling, and the like.

Mesmerism seemed to enable its subjects to transgress boundaries. In the mesmeric trance patients spoke and acted in ways that challenged their gender and class positions. They would dance, sing, assume familiarity with their superiors, commit other improprieties. Who was that person? What exactly was the nature of the self that allowed for Mesmeric Hospital, India, directed by Dr.

James Esdaile such a fractured subjectivity? Scrapbook, vol. But the medical profession ignored the more than three hundred cases where mesmerism had some proven benefit and instead championed anesthesia. Perhaps it was an unsettling sense of boundary transgression. Elliotson, ca. These advertisements date from and The lost art of dental slapstick Dental Cartoons ca.

This question bedeviled mid-twentieth-century dentists and patients. And these wry cartoons play with this perennial problem. There are two series. One features pen-and-ink, black silhouetted figures and scenes, with patches of color and dialogue. It was undoubtedly drawn sometime shortly after the Allied liberation of Paris. In the late nineteenth century, people in need of a dentist faced a marketplace of practitioners with diverse levels of educational attainment, professional certification, technological sophistication, and practical competence.

And potential patients felt this lack quite keenly. Whitslar Cleveland, Ohio. Whitslar presented to his friend Dr. Each is paired with a white silhouette of his hand. Most are presented without com- ment, though there are exceptions: J. Will H. In Gothic fiction, atavistic hands gave shape to social Darwinian anxieties about racial degeneration: Mr. Jekyll and Mr. Middle row Chirognomic were a sure sign of mental deficiency. Visual echoes of Dr. Dental Hand Silhouette Gift Album about the medical unconscious in the early twentieth century.

Dental Hand Silhouette Gift Album weeklies , with autographed hand silhouette. Zim is the only nondentist featured in the gift album. Kirk [Church? Palmistry diagram; unidentified source. Dental Hand dentist [Seimori? But their accomplishment was just as important. Nirenberg and Matthaei worked on molecular function. Make a synthetic nucleic acid, run it through a ribosome which assembles proteins , and see what comes out.

Out comes a synthetic molecule made solely of the amino acid phenylalanine, multiple copies joined head-to-tail like a protein. So UUU the code was formed of three bases means phenylalanine. Vary the amounts of the nucleic acid bases and see what amino acids join up and in what proportions. Three years later, in , pick up a Nobel Prize. It flatters us. The vantage point the photographer provides is pure genius; a more realistic position would put their backs to us or have them looking away from their work.

Printed book with atlas containing lithographs, pp. Borelli prudently avowed that the principal cause of movement is the soul and the active instrument is the will. To do that they needed to devise a way of capturing reliable data. Artists, they argued, lower leg and foot are round only in one direction, rotate had misrepresented the curvature of the spine and angle of the pelvis. The investigator seeking almost entirely in one direction, and therefore can be considered hinges.

Mechanik atlas, pl. The Webers employed the crosshairs of a telescope to measure pelvic tilt at different phases of movement, and then analyzed the phases using differential equations. Humans and machines seemed now disconcertingly equivalent: the mechanics of living bodies subverted the idea not only of opposite:Two figures provide a model of how the motions of running and springing can be accurately drawn.

Luther, J. Stuttgart, Germany. Nudism also had a politics. After all, the ancient Greeks exercised in the open and without clothes. Sunbathing had to be complemented by exercise, skin care, and oil- ing and shaving the body to harden and smooth its surface.

The goal was to make the body resemble a Greek bronze. Whiteness as an ideal of beauty was replaced by a classical or even primitivist aesthetic. The early s was a time of high anxiety in American culture. The United States had won the world war, but after the Soviets exploded their atomic bomb in , fears of nuclear war began to proliferate, along with some undefinable unease about the consequences of scientific progress. Yet the s was also a time of optimism, when many believed that you could overcome anything by adopting a positive attitude and taking timely action.

Because TB is an invader within. That Other could also be people of a different social class or ethnicity. Cartoon modernism emphasized abstraction, bold lines, dynamic distortion, and know one person from another. With the defeat of Nazism and its economical it required fewer cells and less drawing per racial ideology, and in the aftermath of the genocide that killed six million Jews, there was a cell and brought visual elements from cubism, surrealism, art deco, minimalism, even abstract expressionism to changed climate of opinion in America: discrimination is wrong.

The main vector of modernity here is the X-ray. The National Tuberculosis Association commissioned Rodney for a campaign to encourage X-ray screening. A few years later the emphasis would shift to antibiotics, but Rodney takes place on the doorstep of the antibiotic revolution: drug treatment of tuberculosis had already been invented but became practicable only in , when isoniazid, the first oral mycobacteri- cidal drug, was created.

There is another vector of modernity: the motion picture itself, made in a contemporary idiom that powerfully communicates to the public. And the messages are: See your doctor regularly and get regular chest X-rays. Part of its appeal was its colored plates, which feature stylized cutaway diagrams of the interior of the human body.

Although anatomical illustrations had long been a staple of popular medical books, they typically presented a static view of structures. The head was the most modern part of the body. Plate 13 opposite represents the brain as bundles of wires connected to telecommunication offices staffed by little switchboard oper- ators, file clerks, and messengers, who sort and redirect sensory electrical messages received from the eyes, nose, mouth, and lower body.

The structures twentieth-century industry with one glaring inaccuracy: the workers are represented as adult of the human eye, ear, nose, jaw, and throat shown here correspond to the gill structures of fish. Wunder in Uns, pl. Both the form and content of Wunder in Uns signified modernity. Its admixture of text, drawings, and photographs was in the graphic style that had recently been developed in American newspapers and magazines.

Each colored plate was preceded by a tissue-paper overlay printed with captions, a slick packaging concept. America was another signifier. Its illustrations of the industrial body were borrowed then colorized shown graphically. In the s, as a refugee from the Nazis, he returned the genre to America. Among these riches is a charming set of eight block puzzles.

The pictures on the sides of each block, when put together, make six scenes aimed at fostering revolutionary consciousness and teaching hygienic behavior through the cycle of a day. Scene one: As a cat looks up at him and the sun rises through an open window, a boy brushes his teeth left, top. He will next use the basin and towel behind him to wash his face.

The dawn is to the new day as the boy is to the new political order: optimistic, bright, and full of promise. Scene two: The boy joins his sister and older brother, walking on a country road. They stretch out their arms to exercise before school begins. Scene three: In class the boy reads while other boys rub their eyes, which are strained from reading. Scene four: The boy and his sister join a mass health campaign left, center.

His sister waves a flyswatter. One boy holds a pesticide sprayer; another carries a bamboo pole dangling a mousetrap. Scene five: Now home, the boy and his sister wash their hands and face. Their mother brings steaming dishes to the table as dusk falls outside the window. The boy looks to his mother, anticipating a tasty supper.

A green bucket and mop wait for cleaning up after bathing. The Number 10 Shanghai Toy Factory probably produced these blocks between and In March Mao replaced sparrows targeted for eating too much grain with lice. Wilmer New York.

Printed books with line drawings, Huber: 83 pp. Along with syphi- lis and polio it was so rampant that cautionary visual messages appeared in myriad public places, from offices to restrooms. They were specters of horror that left mental scars on an impressionable little me. They were not pleasant to look at but did the job of raising awareness.

Yet not every anti-TB product was scary. The logo for TB, the cross with the double horizontal crossbars, was a friendly brand. Even friendlier was Huber the Tuber, a Story of Tuberculosis, which was conceived, drawn, and written for the National Tuberculosis Association in by Dr.

And the reader gets otherwise serious lessons about the causes, diagnosis, pathology, and treatment of tuberculosis. A few years later Wilmer created a companion volume, Corky the Killer, a Story of Syphilis, for the American Social Hygiene Association, an anti—venereal disease advocacy group.

Soon he rejoins his fellow saboteurs, who love to cause nasty skin eruptions chancres. Eventually caught, he is brought to trial and, after losing his case, sentenced to the above:Huber the Tuber and his associates ride cough Soap and Water Chamber of Torture, where he is scrubbed to death. The moral of the story: droplets to their next human victim. Huber the Tuber, p.

Corky have a bit of magic in them: the health message is subordinated to the sheer joy of visual the Killer, pp. Huber the Tuber, storytelling. The anti-TB campaigns and the formation of an activist public health movement were tied to modernization efforts. The Chinese anti-TB campaigners believed that visual images must play a vital role in health education and mobilization campaigns in a nation where many were poorly educated or illiterate.

The flyers shown here are part of a series made in the s under the anti- communist Kuomintang government. Branded with the double-barred Cross of Lorraine, the international anti-TB trademark, the flyers placed the fight against tuberculosis in a distinctively Chinese framework. In one flyer opposite, bottom left the domestic scene is completely Western, but in the far background next to the window can be seen a Chinese painting of winter-plum blossoms. Winter blossoms symbolize perseverance and vitality in above and opposite: Flyers from a larger series of anti- a harsh environment, a common theme in traditional Chinese art and rhetoric.

An old woman in another flyer kneels before an altar and prays for health, with a poster inset that advertises traditional nostrums and quack remedies opposite, top left. In contrast, a detail from another flyer left shows a doctor explaining a lung X-ray to a young woman. The underlying premise is that in heeding the advice of health experts the Chinese people can modernize themselves and their nation.

In this treasure trove of posters, pamphlets, and ephemera is a unique collection of more than forty sets of slides designed for projection in classrooms and other spaces where audiences assembled. Most of them were made for health campaigns: tuberculosis vaccination; eradication of flies, rats, and mosquitoes; child hygiene; prevention of childhood diarrhea, pneumonia, and rickets; family planning; rural drinking water sanita- tion; coal-smoke and natural-gas poisoning; first aid; vomit and phlegm sanitation; processing human manure into fertilizer; prevention of dysentery, liver-fluke disease, hepatitis, diphthe- ria, tuberculosis, and meningitis; and methods to reduce intestinal disease, and so forth.

The more recent ones, from the s, are mostly film in cardboard frames, produced for the public health campaigns of the Cultural Revolution. The second row of slides depicts the subcutaneous injection method, symptoms of tuberculosis, and three stages to expect after vaccination redness, swelling, scarring. The third row presents a mother bringing her son to be checked by a doctor, a hospitalized child, and the four stages of child development.

The show concludes with slides that tell parents how to get BCG vaccinations for their children they can go to a clinic or wait until doctors come to their village. Communist-era Chinese public health campaigns used a coordinated approach to media as a socialist technology of total mobiliza- opposite: Slides instruct parents on the need to protect their tion for vaccination, sanitary engineering, personal hygiene, and revolutionary consciousness children against TB.

These rare slides give viewers a glimpse of that lost world. Native people, we are told and shown, have a regrettable tendency to live in damp, overcrowded, and unsanitary dwellings in close quarters with domestic animals, rodents, and insects. Their customs and ways of doing things threaten their own health and the health of others. A major in the U. Ames begins his book by lecturing on the importance of being well. After this rather terrifying introduction his advice is generally sound.

We need to breathe clean air, eat nutritious food, rest and sleep well, and reduce wastes of every kind. At the end of each chapter he poses questions for the reader to answer. The body, he says, like a well-kept horse, will repay us above: A native village street adorns the cover of this guide to well for our good treatment.

His advice on nutrition is a mix of the scientific knowledge of the living in the tropics. In parts of the tropics, he says, people eat reptiles such as iguanas, but these are not fit food for decent people. As for clothing, Ames insists that children should wear flannel bands to keep their bowels warm. While native people laugh at the idea of wearing flannel bands around the body, he says, many of their children die. These include foul air, vile odors, dirty water, rotting filth, decaying animals and plants, bodily wastes, and dangerous vapors from sewer pipes.

These must be countered by the most scrupulous attention to cleanliness. He tries to be cheery and uplifting but mainly depicts the tropics as a disease-plagued environment that poses a grave risk to white children. I feel fortunate to have missed reading this little volume when growing up as a opposite:A photograph shows tropical natives polluting their child in British Malaya.

Elementary Hygiene, p. Army Washington, DC. Tens of thousands of men died, due in part to shortages of quinine, then the only available treatment. Consequently, only one-third of his troops were fit for combat at any given time, according to General Douglas MacArthur, the rest either afflicted by the disease or recovering. But, as with the Private Snafu series of animated cartoons, GIs responded most avidly to information presented as entertainment.

In an enlisted artist named Frank Mack was assigned the duty of designing pinup calendars to reach these homesick, bored, and horny soldiers, sailors, and marines. If Moe foe and return, hale and hearty, to her yearning arms. Mack draws her with the kind of is too recklessly macho to let fears of a wee mosquito bite clunky eroticism GIs already enjoyed in novelty postcards, aircraft nose art, Tijuana bibles, prick his dream balloon of hetero homefront joys, maybe the threat of figurative and literal!

Navy Washington, DC. His Commandments for Health may have consisted of ten short black-and-white cartoons mirroring the Ten Commandments but was not widely distributed or shown. Today it is extremely rare. The National Library of Medicine holds five titles; only two others are known to exist. Harman began his career in the s with Walt Disney and Warner Bros. But unlike the Snafu series, the animation is jerky and backgrounds are static, sure signs that the cartoons were made quickly and cheaply.

Animation in the s was labor intensive: the more drawings, the smoother the action. Each film follows the same formula: the main character, the hapless U. Marine private McGillicuddy a Snafu clone , violates a health commandment, endangering himself and sometimes also his fellow soldiers. McGillicuddy cartoons contain a dose of anti-Japanese propa- ganda that goes over the edge into racism.

The film concludes with more racial stereotyping: natives who appear to be cannibals and speak in minstrel-show dialect pick him up and dump him into a kettle, but only to give him a bath. He licks his plate clean instead of sterilizing it in scalding water. Later, an X-ray view shows his intestines literally tied in knots left; the line running down the right is the sound track.

In the next scene, sadistic doctors subject him to a stomach pump, a huge dose of castor oil, and a gallon enema. When a Japanese radio announcer thanks Mac by name opposite, top left , the marines use a steam shovel to dump him and his latrine into a pit. Philadelphia ; and unknown manufacturers Glass slides in wooden frames; photoprinted and handpainted P icture the scene.

Gaslight dims and the doctor emerges, striding toward a lectern. Cast across the auditorium onto a screen is the perfect image of microscopically observed snow- flakes, ten feet in diameter. According to the art historian Emily Godbey and the psychiatrist George S. Some of the images to terrifying proportions. But theory trumped such considerations.

According to a leading even moved. The illusion of motion. Lantern Slide 80 to recoil from their delusions by externalizing them and subjecting them to the ridicule of images gathered here are from St. Lantern Slide 47, others. All of them were produced by James W. If you can get [the insane] to laugh natural, it is quite apt to explode the whole affair. They are relics of the infectious-disease prevention campaigns of late-nineteenth- and twentieth-century state and local public health agencies as they sought to isolate the sick, encourage physicians to report cases, and educate ordinary men and women.

Such humble pieces of disposable paper and cardboard document vital links between the worlds of law and medicine, the laboratory and the bedside, public policy and the political and professional stakeholders who created and enforced those policies. The shelves of our established medical libraries are laden with words written to be preserved: theses, medical journals, monographs, and textbooks.

Learned books and articles were the history of medicine for generations of its chroniclers. But in recent years a new historical sensibility has made such ephemera indispensable, as we seek to link high culture with low, theory with practice, medical institutions with everyday life. Only the more prescient libraries, such as the National Library of Medicine, have purposefully collected such undignified materials. These objects reflect a changing consensus of epidemiological and laboratory knowledge.

They also illuminate the not always direct relationship between that knowledge and public health practice. Smallpox, for example, had been known to be transmitted from person to per- son since at least the eighteenth century, yet late-nineteenth-century outbreaks of the disease, which gave rise to an aggressive policy of isolation and official encouragement of vaccination, had to struggle against resentment of compulsory measures and in some instances the orga- nized opposition of anti-vaccinationists.

Newer immunizations for scarlet fever, diphtheria, and whooping cough, which joined the list of reportable ills in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, similarly required the education and mobilization of an often wary public. Each threatened epidemic has provided a new focus for debate and discussion. Today fears of emerging diseases, and the needs and anxieties of a global health community, under- score the continued importance of outreach and implementation as well as research.

The smallpox and poliomyelitis cards were printed as when these health signs were printed many decades ago. Motion picture, black-and-white, sound, 16 mm; T his curious little nightmare movie is addressed to black soldiers. It depicts black men as overgrown, impulsive, hypersexualized children who are unable to contain their primordial desires.

An unbeatable combination. We soon see why. This ghastly sight is juxtaposed with images of black heroes, men who have sublimated their lusts so as to better serve their race and their nation: heavyweight boxing champion Joe Louis and Olympic track stars Jesse Owens and Ralph Metcalfe. As a grand finale, speaking magisterially from behind an imposing desk, Paul Robeson bellows a final exhortation.

Grow up, boys, and leave women alone! Circular No. It articulated a new epistemological foundation for American medi- cine, based on the experience of dealing with thousands of wounded and sick patients, the critical comparison of cases, and a commitment to learning and developing new theories and techniques. And it prompted the officers to make photographs of unique and interesting cases.

The cards became medical records, used to determine the amount of pension that the wounded men would receive. Soldiers are posed and identified by name, rank, company, regiment, and state in many of the photographs, but the disease or wound or amputation is meant to be the focus of the picture. Taken together, they provide an extraordinary document of the damage the war wrought and the challenges facing Civil War medical practice.

Many of its cards are marked with hand-drawn arrows in red ink, showing the entry and exit of the bullet. Lesions or gangrenous ulcers are circled and colored red. Some cards also have pencil or pen notations. Bontecou and his colleagues prided themselves on their modern, scientific approach to medicine and surgery and they regarded the photographs as a kind of two-dimensional clinic. A set of cards was exhibited at the Philadelphia Centen- nial Exposition of These images of patients set squarely before the camera are touching and disquieting, a powerful display of suffering.

Books, pamphlets, letters, photographs, engravings, lithographs, sound recordings T here are few figures in medicine who are also iconic figures in world history. It is all true if oversimplified, yet her heroic personal narrative obscures one key aspect of her success. That is her skill in communication, her ability to deploy an array of words and images as rhetorical tools in convincing her readers that the current state of health and disease is intolerable, and that both logic and morality dictate a new institutional order.

That difference was both diagnostic and motivating. If death rates could be lower, then they should be. Nightingale was a master of the Is and Ought. And she was a pioneer in using the power of graphic representation to show how the Ought could become the Is. It was a grim and damning reality that could be changed for the better by the nursing and hospital reforms she orchestrated.

Knowledge demanded responsibility, and responsibility action. Nightingale, Subsidiary Notes as to the Introduction of Female Nursing into Military been some very glaring disobedience to these laws. Anonymously published, Contribution was a brief but rhetorician who used words and images to invoke a health-sustaining world of predictable powerful indictment of unnecessary, because preventable, order.

She was more modern than she knew. Kiel, Germany. Printed book with illustrations, 23 pp.

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